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National Archives of Singapore. Holdings on the Methodist Church (Oral Histories)

Compiled by Michael Poon

Interviewee
Accession No
Project Title
Reel No
Synopsis
ALKAFF, Alwee 124 Pioneers of Singapore 4 Alwee grew up in Lloyd Road house. Home education in English. Then joined Anglo-Chinese School. Higher education in Australia. On return, joined family business. Took over management when father retired in 1968. His arranged marriage and children. Reason for family's success in accumulating property.
ANG Eng Ann 2436 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 *Family background. Lived at 291, River Valley Road (now The Missions to Seamen). Chinese New Year celebrations. Description of his neighbourhood. Evacuation exercises at Anglo-Chinese School in 1941. His father was recruited into the Civil Defence. Bombing of houses around his area. Witnessed Australian troops on manoeuvres. Family built an air-raid shelter. Result of air raids. "Black outs" of the city. Staple food during the Japanese Occupation. Reactions to the British surrender in 1942. First impression of the Japanese soldiers. Parents sold cakes during the Japanese Occupation. Food rations. Attended a Japanese school at Mount Sophia.
ANG Eng Ann 2436 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 2 *Witnessed dead Indonesian beggars. Heard of atrocities committed by Japanese soldiers. Presence of Australian prisoners-of-war. Life in general during the Japanese Occupation. Fear of Japanese soldiers. Incidents towards and during the end of the Japanese Occupation in 1945. Returned to Anglo-Chinese School in 1946. Impressions of the teachers and school discipline. Impression that school standards were low. Teaching methods. Shortage of textbooks. Attitude towards teachers. School activities and classmates. Subjects taken. Interest in chemistry. Life in Singapore after the war.
ANG Eng Ann 2436 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 3 *Life in Singapore after the war. Subjects he took at University of Malaya from 1955 to 1958. Impression of a big gap between secondary and university education. Impression of the lecturers, laboratory facilities, curriculum and students. Played table-tennis at university. Ambitions at university. Returned to Anglo-Chinese School as a teacher in 1958. Joined the Department of Chemistry in 1958. Responsibilities of a chemist in the Dangerous and Hazardous Materials Division. Transferred to Food and Drugs Division. Artificial colours and preservatives in food. Test of samples in the laboratories. Transferred to Toxicology Division.
ARUMUGAM, Thamothuram Pillai 332 Special Project 2 *Sat for admission test to enrol in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS), Singapore. Description of school life in ACS. Had operation for duodenal ulcer, did not sit for Cambridge examinations. Applied for work in Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH). Worked as hospital assistant or dresser, 1 September 1928. Only male hospital assistants recruited. Received salary of $57.50 and ward allowance. Performed night duties under supervision of senior hospital assistants. Engaged Indian cook, for $15-20. Leisure activities after work. Started sundry store, with brother and uncle at Jalan Kayu, in 1932. Duties as Grade II Hospital Assistant, 1934-1936.
BAKER, Maurice (Dr) 95 Political Development in Singapore 1945-1965 1 Father, from United Kingdom, posted to Malaya in 1912; married mother, an Indian. Memories of parents. Schooling in Anglo-Chinese School, Ipoh. Joined Raffles College in 1938. Subjects studied. His contemporaries included Kwan Sai Kheong, Said Saifuddin and Fred Arulanandrum.
BONG, Anthony Kim Siong 1398 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 2 Games played. Prominent landmarks, Government House, Pavillion Theatre, Orchard Road Market and Emerald Hill. Penang Road from 1920s to 1950s. Went to amusement parks. Learned dancing. Subjects studied at Anglo-Chinese School. School life. Applied for job at Malayan Establishment Office.
BONG, Marie Ethel (Mrs) 1390 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 26 Her training experience at Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Field visits to Chinatown and welfare homes during diploma training course. Impact of these visits on her. Subjects studied in diploma course. Her opinion of course. Subjects she took for her degree. Why she joined the teaching profession.
CHAN Kai Yau 1707 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 8 Many of his schoolmates went to China after war. Others joined Malayan Communist Party (MCP). Why interviewee did not become a communist. His family's religious background. He was active in the Student Christian Movement (SCM), a forerunner of Varsity Christian Fellowship (VCF) formed in 1952. Interviewee was one of the founding members of VCF. Was an active member of Wesley Methodist Church. Parents were devout Christians. Puritanical home environment. Home life during Occupation.
CHAN Keong Poh 802 Communities of Singapore (Part 1) 3 Uncle dealt with pawnbrokers. Also in charge of Theatre Royal and bangsawan troupe, Star Opera Company. Location of Theatre Royal. Who watched bangsawan then. Profile of paternal grandmother. Father's involvement in acquiring Barker Road property for Anglo-Chinese School. Also a Municipal Councillor and President of Chinese Swimming Club. Religious festivals observed at home. Reasons for her break from traditional Peranakan ways.
CHAN Kum Chee 341 Political Development in Singapore 1945-1965 1 Family history and education. Impressions of Thia Chan Bee and Yap Pheng Geck as teachers in Anglo-Chinese School. Details of Moral Rearmament Movement. Audited accounts of Overseas Chinese Association during Japanese Occupation. More details on family. Resided at Ann Siang Hill and reminiscences of Chinatown.
CHAN Kwee Sung 962 Special Project 6 Wheat flour plentiful with noodle stalls everywhere. Canteens (People's Restaurants) in Collyer Quay and Maxwell market provided cheap meals at 30 cents and 8 cents. Emergency delcaration in 1948 brought about re-introduction of identity cards and road blocks. Returned to study at Anglo-Chinese Continuation School. Witnessed war crime trials in Victoria Memorial Hall.
CHAN Kwee Sung 962 Special Project 7 Over-aged schoolboys after the war did not like being chastised by teachers. Singaporeans welcomed return of British. Facilities at Anglo-Chinese Continuation School not sufficient. Description of transportation. No designated bus stops, congestion, trishaws and private taxis. Brothels in Chinatown, Tanjong Pagar and Desker Road. Coolie quarters in Chinatown. Secret societies and gang fights.
CHAN Siew Jiang 1554 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 Family background. Educational background. Why he joined Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) commercial class after he left Raffles Institution (RI); took up book-keeping and typing. Why he decided to be a teacher. Joined Oldham Hall as a boarding teacher. His starting pay. Specialised in teaching mathematics. Location of ACS. Why his family left Malacca for Singapore.
CHAN Siew Jiang 1554 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 Very few schools in early days. Subjects they learnt. Why most students joined games in school. Prizes for Sports Day. Outram School and Raffles Institution (RI) had no school uniform. In Anglo-Chinese School (ACS), houses were named after famous boys and principals. Comparison between his school life in Outram School and ACS. Facilities in Outram School.
CHAN Siew Jiang 1554 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 His favourite teacher at Raffles Institution (RI). Why he wanted to live in Oldham Hall. His teachers at RI. He felt wanted in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) unlike his days in RI. His social circle was enlarged when he entered ACS. Outram School was feeder school for RI. Why he went to ACS commercial class. Subjects he took.
CHAN Siew Jiang 1554 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 8 Attended commercial class for one year. Chapel service in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Why he decided to take up teaching. A lot of students from ACS were Indonesians. His life as a boarder. How the Saturday morning prayer meeting came about. Some students joined Straits Chinese Church in Middle Road.
CHAN Siew Jiang 1554 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 9 There was a housemaster in Oldham Hall. His teachers at Teachers' Training College (TTC). Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) boarders were not divided into categories. Mostly local teachers in ACS. Why he gave up caning students. What he taught in school. Missionary teachers were very friendly with students.
CHAN Siew Jiang 1554 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 10 The missionaries influenced teachers into discarding the cane. Difficult students sent to principal. He was sports secretary in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Why he became sports secretary of ACS. The boys were divided into five houses; each had housemaster. He later became principal of Anglo-Chinese Primary School.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 13 Why he preferred to have male teachers and principal for Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). ACS constituted a Board of Governors to run the school with permission of Department of Education in 1955. How Board members were elected. Functions of the Board. School matters dealt with through the principal. Power of the Board. Oldham Methodist Secondary School merged into ACS around 1963.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 20 Medical benefits. A joint provident fund for Methodist teachers in Singapore and Malaysia. Their pay-cut was about 10 per cent. Teachers were asked to clean up public places. Old boys returned to teach in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) after the war. More women teachers joined as ACS expanded. Disadvantage of having female teachers. Why Chinese teachers were allocated to uniformed groups.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 22 Further elaboration on old boys helping in school's extra-curricular activities (ECA). They had strong ties with Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). How Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC) celebrated Honours Day. The Old Boys' Association raised funds for ACS scholarship annually; also awarded two medals yearly to students good in ECA and studies. School's Christian Fellowship under guidance of Methodist Church. Barker Road Methodist Church in ACS set up by ACS boys.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 23 Barker Road Methodist Church was meant for the boys in school. Why he started each school year with a church service. The Old Boys' Association, bishop, teachers and principals of the four Methodist schools were invited to the service. He was secretary of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) Board of Governors. Courses conducted for teachers after annual church service. He taught Mathematics. How he relates to students.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 32 Supervised and graded school examination results as senior assistant. Why examination scripts were returned to students. In mid-1960s, initiated scheme of allowing Science and Arts students to switch streams based on examination results. Methodist Book Room. Aided Schools Council and its functions. Usefulness of the Council.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 45 How he apportioned cash reserve of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) to Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC). How he got ACJC canteen organised. Initial problems college faced in running the canteen. College bookshop. Organisation of college committees. Being education secretary of the Board of Education for Methodist Church helped him in his capacity as a principal.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 46 How Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) became a mixed school. Posted to Board of Education in 1970. Annual meeting of Methodist teachers started in 1976. Meeting activities. Also on interviewing board for new teachers. What he did as education secretary. Was the first education secretary of Singapore Council after the Separation from Malaysia.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 47 Schools helped in the funding of Council of Education. He was invited by schools to speak during Teacher's Day. How he became education secretary. His role. Functions of Council of Education. Close relationship between the church and school council. The Methodist scholarship for all Methodist schools was initiated in 1977.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 Family later moved to Geylang. Games he played with kampung Malay boys. Why parents moved to Geylang. Villagers' occupations. Why he went to Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in 1927. Good racial mix of teachers and students in ACS though Chinese predominated. Background of ACS. Missionary teachers set tune and spirit of school. Teachers' qualifications. Relationship between missionary and local teachers.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Teachers' qualifications. Expatriate teachers exempted from three years of normal class training. Most missionary teachers in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) were Americans. T W Hinch was first non-missionary expatriate to be principal. Teachers' dressing. How his teacher Mr Sundram rewarded them with money. His first day in school. Entry into English schools was easy as Chinese schools were still popular.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 Teachers felt responsible for students' poor results. Children of those days were keen to go to school. Facilities in classroom. What he played with. He was brought up to know value of money, and thrift. Children were too poor to bring lunch to school. How he travelled to Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). School bag used. Canteen food. School hours. What they did during school chapel service.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 His opinion of chapel service. His explanation on why people are more sensitive towards religion nowadays. Children very disciplined in the past. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) emphasised reading, writing and arithmetic. Students had no reading materials except school textbooks. Games played in school. Minimal support for extra-curricular activities. School provided swimming lessons for interested students in Standard 6 at Fort Canning YMCA.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 Disciplinary punishments in school. He went to Cairnhill Anglo-Chinese School during Standard 6. School building. Streaming in Standard 7. Students intending to go to medical college attended Latin classes. He took up commercial courses due to financial reasons. Ninety per cent of Anglo-Chinese Secondary students were from Anglo-Chinese Primary School. Strong family spirit in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Why he spent his days as a student and teacher in ACS.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 Accepted into Raffles College in 1937. Took Mathematics, English and Geography. Why he became a teacher in 1941. Occupations of classmates from Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Ninety per cent of lecturers in Raffles College were British. Relationship between expatriates and students in Raffles College. School term and hours. School hostel. Dress code of female and male students in Raffles College.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 8 His diploma in teaching. Posted to Cairnhill Anglo- Chinese School (ACS) forhis practical training. Took courses in phonetics and physical education.His first pay was $165. Reasons for little contact between Arts and Medical College students. He taught Scripture in ACS. Pay disparity between British and local civil servants. He joined ACS after graduation from Raffles College.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 9 Initial problems he faced as a new teacher at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). How he won his students over. He felt that a teacher should be well read and be his students' friend. Why he refused to ask for help when he first started. How he conducted staff meetings as a principal later on. Teachers encouraged to join Air-raid Precaution (ARP) or Medical Auxiliary Service (MAS) prior to Japanese Occupation.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 12 Why few teachers reported back to work when Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) re-opened. Insufficient textbooks after the war. He was happy to return to school. Subjects he taught. Chinese was not available in ACS before the war. Why ACS admitted girls in later years. ACS boys welcomed inclusion of girls. Few female teachers in ACS in early days.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 13 Why he preferred to have male teachers and principal for Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). ACS constituted a Board of Governors to run the school with permission of Department of Education in 1955. How Board members were elected. Functions of the Board. School matters dealt with through the principal. Power of the Board. Oldham Methodist Secondary School merged into ACS around 1963.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 14 Fund-raising in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). ACS Board of Governors had Boards of Management accountable to them. ACS 4 Boards of Management started in 1990. Issues dealt by the Boards. ACS had a lot of Indonesian students residing in Oldham Hall pre-war. Pre-war hostels run by missionary personnel. Oldham Hall was located at Plaza Singapura then.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 15 Reasons for Oldham Hall's location. His initial teaching pay. Salary of British expatriates. He was introduced into private tuition before the war. Promotional prospects in aided school. Headship of school was in hands of the church. Where Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) got their funds. Why giving private tuition in early days were kept low in profile. Demand for tuition increased after the war.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 16 He started teaching in 1940. Background of students in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). No school uniform until late 1950s. Transportation to school. Barker Road ACS was built when Cairnhill ACS became insufficient. Facilities in Barker Road ACS. Counselling in ACS was carried out by church personnel. Christian Fellowship in ACS. Why he initiated blood donation programme in Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC).
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 17 Post-war Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) was under pressure to recruit more students. Problems faced. How ACS got round Ministry of Education's order of no chapel service in school. Their literary society period was given up for Chinese when People's Action Party (PAP) assumed power. Pre-war subject emphasis. ACS employed own Chinese language teachers in mid-1950s. ACS active in sports after war. Why he was chosen as scout master.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 18 What scouts learnt. Scouting activities. Late 1950s curriculum showed interest in local happenings. Longer school hours with self-government. Teaching of second language grew in importance. Barker Road Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) opened its pre-university classes to girls after the war. Control over quality of ACS students declined over the years. How Ministry of Education's (MOE) ruling that colleges had to end at 4.30 pm affected students.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 19 Students inhibited by long hours in school. Reactions towards learning Malay and Chinese language. Ministry of Education (MOE) sent Malay and Chinese teachers to Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Difficult to select moral education teachers. Moral education not popular in school. How teachers were selected for moral education. Parents were positive towards introduction of moral education. ACS social visits to homes. Pay-cut.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 20 Medical benefits. A joint provident fund for Methodist teachers in Singapore and Malaysia. Their pay-cut was about 10 per cent. Teachers were asked to clean up public places. Old boys returned to teach in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) after the war. More women teachers joined as ACS expanded. Disadvantage of having female teachers. Why Chinese teachers were allocated to uniformed groups.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 21 Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) welcomed introduction of Science stream. School gave Arts students chances to do Science by allowing them to sit for Science examinations at end of year. How streaming was done. How he consoled students who could not do Science. Old boys were encouraged to help in school's extra-curricular activities.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 22 Further elaboration on old boys helping in school's extra-curricular activities (ECA). They had strong ties with Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). How Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC) celebrated Honours Day. The Old Boys' Association raised funds for ACS scholarship annually; also awarded two medals yearly to students good in ECA and studies. School's Christian Fellowship under guidance of Methodist Church. Barker Road Methodist Church in ACS set up by ACS boys.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 23 Barker Road Methodist Church was meant for the boys in school. Why he started each school year with a church service. The Old Boys' Association, bishop, teachers and principals of the four Methodist schools were invited to the service. He was secretary of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) Board of Governors. Courses conducted for teachers after annual church service. He taught Mathematics. How he relates to students.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 24 How he taught English. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) had chapel once a week. Teachers could teach whatever gospel they wanted for scripture lessons. He was requested by pre-university students to teach scripture. How he tried to build up confidence of his students in Mathematics. Students' parents were asked to sign on test papers.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 25 How he established rapport with students. His view that a principal or teacher should lead by example. Qualities of a good teacher. Tried to encourage spirit of self-learning amongst students. Why he used to announce students' marks in class. Appointed senior assistant of morning session in 1961. Why he was bothered by the appointment at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS).
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 26 Initiated devotional time during morning assembly. Led the daily morning assembly at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) when he was senior assistant. Did the staffing, time-tabling and organising of examinations for the school as its senior assistant. Problems faced in school. How he checked on teachers.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 27 He felt a teacher needs to be trained. Qualities a teacher needs. Felt that a teacher is role model for both students and colleagues and that a teacher needs to be well trained and to have both heart and soul. Other qualities essential in teaching profession. His salary and duties as a specialist Mathematics teacher at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS).
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 29 How he selected teachers. Teachers' dressing in the past. Smoking was not allowed in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) staff room. Good relationship amongst teachers. Little opportunities for teachers to socialise with those from other schools until after the war. He was made principal of ACS in 1970 and of Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC) in 1977. His pay as a principal.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 30 Why post of senior assistant was not popular. His relationship with students as a senior assistant. How he maintained discipline in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Good conduct publicised during school assembly. Caning in school. In charge of corporal punishment since he assumed senior assistantship. Why caning was not administered in private.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 31 Incident where he punished two boys in Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC). In ACJC, corporal punishment was administered in principal's room. As principal, he used older teacher to be mentor to younger ones. Help was provided to new teachers. Why it was difficult for mission school teachers to join government schools. Lesson he learnt in allocating responsibilities
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 33 School had difficulty getting their clerk promoted. How he assigned extra-curricular activities (ECA) to teachers when he was senior assistant. Problems he encountered. Chairman of ECA Advisory Council. Was 50 years old when he became principal of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Had three senior assistants helping him. Made himself available as principal. What he did as principal.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 34 Objective of having swimming pool in the school. Case where Aided Schools Council's request regarding sterilisation was turned down by Ministry of Education. Was Chairman of Extra-Curricular Activities (ECA) Advisory Committee for two years. Also a member of National Police Cadet Corps Council. His dealings with his teachers as a principal of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS).
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 35 How he assessed teachers. Why he did not like to spring surprises on his teachers. Further elaboration on the sterilisation programme. His pay. School budget. As a principal, he could always rely on old boys for support should the school need anything. Anglo-Chinese School's (ACS) other sources of aid. Anglo-Chinese Junior College's (ACJC) military band overseas trip to Thailand.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 36 No problem with school funds as he had support from Old Boys' Association and Board of Governors. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) accused of snobbery in late 1970s by Dr Goh Keng Swee; how school responded to accusation. Students' and parental reactions towards Dr Goh's comment.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 37 Smoking problem in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in 1960s. How school dealt with the problem. Drug problem. How school handled problem students. He believed in moulding students' characters and physical development. School had career talks for students. Chapel service helped in students' spiritual development. How the ACS spirit was fostered.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 38 Anglo-Chinese School's (ACS) anthem first sung in 1927. Celebration of Founder's Day and Honours Day. Old Boys' Association medals awarded to the all-round achievements of old boys. Why ties between ACS and Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC) weakened. Second language problem in ACJC. Building of ACJC.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 39 Financial difficulties encountered in building Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC). How college went about saving on electricity bills. Initial problems encountered in running of ACJC. ACJC teachers recruited either from Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) pre-university classes or Ministry of Education (MOE). ACJC students objected to the regulation of having to stay back in college till 4.30 pm.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 40 His selection as Anglo-Chinese Junior College's (ACJC) principal. College's first enrolment. Went with his staff to Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) to encourage students to join ACJC. Problem of attracting the cream into ACJC due to competition from other colleges. A lot of students in ACJC were from neighbourhood schools. Higher staff turnover in ACJC than in ACS.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 41 Reasons for higher staff turnover in Anglo-Chinese Reasons for higher staff turnover in Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC). Aided schools not given priority in terms of staffing. Appointed three female teachers to look after female students. More attention paid to girls in ACJC. Attempts were made by ACJC to develop spiritual and moral education.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 42 Chapel service in Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC). Working hours as a principal. His staff. Held weekly meetings with canteen committee. Why he had regular meetings with non-teaching staff. Seconded one of his vice-principals to ACJC and made the other a head of department. Why Earnest Lau was left to be principal of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS).
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 43 Further elaboration on why Earnest Lau was left to be principal of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Why his vice-principal had to retire two years earlier than his retirement age of 65. What junior college principals did during informal meetings. Further elaboration on Anglo-Chinese Junior College's (ACJC) anti-snobbery campaign.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 44 What Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC) did to counter snobbery in college. Board of Governors supported the campaign. Initial apprehension about the building of ACJC. Fun fair in ACJC brought staff and parents closer together. Why Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and ACJC had separate fun fairs. Relationship between ACJC and ACS. Image of ACS and ACJC.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 45 How he apportioned cash reserve of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) to Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC). How he got ACJC canteen organised. Initial problems college faced in running the canteen. College bookshop. Organisation of college committees. Being education secretary of the Board of Education for Methodist Church helped him in his capacity as a principal.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 48 Scholarship amount. He spent 16 years as education secretary from 1970 to 1985. Reasons why he went into teaching. His impressions of the school's chapel service. His love for Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) grew when he became a teacher. His experience as a teacher. Extra-curricular activities (ECA) under his charge. Why he joined Old Boys' Association. How he became principal of ACS.
CHEE Keng Lim 1425 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 50 As principal of Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC), he was troubled by Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) boys not going to ACJC. As ACJC principal, he pulled good teachers from ACS into ACJC. Problems faced by ACJC in initial years. Anti-snobbery campaign also affected ACJC. College emphasised on character development. His love for teaching.
CHEOK, Sunny Hock Siew 2234 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 2 How he learnt Japanese. Missed Japanese friends after Japanese surrendered. Returned to Raffles Library (RL) to work. Small staff at RL. Library users. Impressions of L M Harrod. No major staff change at RL for twenty years. Helped National Library (NL) move to its Stamford Road premises. Job responsibilities following transfer to Accountant-General's Department. Impressions of Chua Kim Yeow. Transferred to Trade Division Library. Later did clerical work at Trade Division office. Difference in work between typist and clerk. How he joined Boys' Brigade (BB). Why he left 6th Company and joined 4th Company. His work at Christ Methodist Church.
CHEOK, Sunny Hock Siew 2234 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 3 Preached at Christ Methodist Church. Youth counselling. Problem of parents neglecting their children. Could sense whether people had problems. Changes in attitudes of children. Helped a rickshaw puller. Perception that the government did not support Boys' Brigade (BB). Helped People's Action Party (PAP) in 1959 and 1963 General Elections. His opinion of PAP. Impressions of Dr. Toh Chin Chye and Ong Eng Guan. A Chinese man was killed in 1964 riot. Christian outlook since Calvary Charismatic Church started in 1971. Converted in 1941. Father was a Buddhist before conversion. Influence of Christianity on himself.
CHEW Chin Jin 1610 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 Similar arm fracture 32 years later during training for Police Cadet Corps. Description of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) classroom: desks and chairs, blackboards, facilities, bags. Organisation of classes and school. Relationship with teachers. Languages spoken. Religious education. Activities in church. Support of Christian activities by colonial government. Methodist Youth Fellowship institutes.
CHEW Chin Jin 1610 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 Chinese tuition during Japanese Occupation; reasons for studying Chinese; lessons. Reasons for attending St Andrew's School after the war. Boxing lessons with principal R K Adams. Description of R K Adams as a principal. Motivations for involvement in church activities. Working relationship with father. Reasons for growth in Methodist Youth Fellowship. Advantages of teaching career in 1960s compared with today.
CHEW Chin Jin 1610 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Younger days at school, involvement in church. War years - relocation to Evelyn Seminary (now Trinity Theological College) and shelling incident, farming at Hillside Drive, working in factory. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) canteen. Accident in school. Corporal punishment in school. Hospital visit. Comparison between western and eastern medicine. Chinese 'sinseh' and treatment.
CHEW Chin Jin 1610 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 Similar arm fracture 32 years later during training for Police Cadet Corps. Description of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) classroom: desks and chairs, blackboards, facilities, bags. Organisation of classes and school. Relationship with teachers. Languages spoken. Religious education. Activities in church. Support of Christian activities by colonial government. Methodist Youth Fellowship institutes.
CHEW, Johnny Kim Chuan 2215 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 6 Changes in the way telegrams were sent by the press. Changes in the types of switchboards. Brief history of Pentecost Methodist Church. Church activities during and after the Japanese Occupation. Influence of American missionaries among early Methodist churches. His work among the Peranakans in the church. Peranakan hymn book used. Why the Peranakan congregation is getting smaller. "Baba-language" Bible now replaced by Bibles in Malay and Indonesian. Reason why sermons were given in Malay.
CHEW, Johnny Kim Chuan 2215 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 7 Guest preachers at the Peranakan service in Pentecost Methodist Church. Availability of Christian literature in Indonesian Malay. Preached sermons in Malay. Activities organised for the Peranakan congregation. Retired in 1981 but returned to work as an operator until 1987. What he had been doing since his second retirement in 1987. No future plans.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 Clerical work he did in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and the development of his interest in teaching. Impact a teacher has on the life of a child. Teaching is a vocation. Differences in teaching secondary and primary school. His teacher training experience. His motivation for community service. He thinks that Singaporeans are generally big-hearted at times of need. Prevention of abuse of goodwill services. History, funding and development of Methodist Welfare Services.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 The funding of Methodist Welfare Services. Skills he developed during teacher training. Usefulness of part-time teacher training. Why he taught at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Satisfaction in going back to his Alma Mater. Difference between government and government-aided school teachers. His opinion on teachers who give private tuition. The pockets of poverty in affluent Singapore which need help from volunteers. Ways of inculcating empathy for the poor in his school while he was principal.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 12 Values he emphasised as teacher and principal. Reaction of some students towards the "Use Your Hands" campaign. His disapproval of detention as a form of discipline. Methodist Welfare Services. Building layout and facilities of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) at Barker Road and Anglo-Chinese Junior School. Size of teaching staff of the Anglo-Chinese Primary School and the Anglo-Chinese Junior School. His adaptation of vice-principalship from Anglo-Chinese Junior and Anglo-Chinese Primary School. Reason for his transfer from Anglo-Chinese Junior School to Anglo-Chinese Primary School.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 20 The reaction of teachers to People's Action Party's (PAP) measures. Anglo-Chinese School's (ACS) progress in bilingualism. His opinion that the period between 1959 and the early 1960s was one of change for ACS. ACS is affiliated to the Methodist Church. The function of the School Board of Management and the Old Boys' Association.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 21 The services of Old Boys' Association to students and staff of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). The effect People's Action Party's (PAP) massive school building project had on ACS. The reason for ACS's high academic performance. The school chaplain and full-time Christian education officers. ACS's relationship with other Methodist schools. The induction of new teachers. Students that impress him. The Teachers' Union. The organisations - Singapore Children's Society and Children's Charities' Association - which he is involved in.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 22 The organisations - Singapore Children's Society and Children's Charities Association - which he is involved in and the role he plays. The building of the Methodist Children's Home. His involvement with the Society for Reading and Literacy and the Scout Movement. His involvement with the Methodist Youth Fellowship. The formation of the Methodist Youth Fellowship and its activities.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 23 The Methodist Youth Fellowship and its history. Methodist Youth Fellowship meetings and activities. The contribution the Methodist Youth Fellowship makes to the Methodist Church. His election and duties as president. The changes he initiated and advocated as president. Duties of the director of youth work. The future of the Methodist Youth Fellowship. Why he left the Methodist Youth Fellowship. How the Methodist Youth Fellowship deepened his experience as an educator. Why he became a Methodist.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 24 Why he became a Methodist. His baptism ceremony. His involvement in the Methodist Annual Conference. His reason for not becoming a Methodist pastor. The structure and conferences of the Methodist Church. The election of the Bishop and the ordination of a pastor. How being a Christian has helped him as an educator. His family's reaction to his becoming a Christian. How being a Christian educator enriched him as a person. The things he would and wouldn't change if life could be re-started.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 Description of family background. School experience during Japanese Occupation and prior to joining Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Further elaboration on his parents. Maternal uncle took the father figure. Enrolment at and first impressions of ACS. Learning English. Teachers helped his peers in their work discreetly. Transport to school. First salary as a teacher. Description of first classmates. Corporal punishment used for discipline. Effects of corporal punishment. Other forms of discipline used during schooldays and while he was a teacher. Description of ACS uniform, motto and song.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 Singing Anglo-Chinese School's (ACS) song. The history of ACS. Fellow schoolmates who held positions of leadership, and description of a school photograph. The charisma of ACS. How teachers displayed concern for him and schoolmates. Description of classroom, school books, use of chalkboards and his school bags. The food brought for recess. His typical day as an ACS student. School playground and childhood games. Chapel (Assembly) time. How he animated chapel time when he was principal. Characteristics of persons who have received Christian mission school education.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 His typical day as a student. Fist fights among his peers. Why children now face more pressures than in his day. Consequences of over-pushing children via tuition. Why pre-war parents did not pressure their children. Ethnic background of classmates at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Why parents send children to Christian mission schools. Students at chapel time. Teaching the second language. His Mandarin teacher. Values the school emphasised. Bible lessons. Inculcation of self-discipline while he was a student and a principal. Habit of prayer directed towards Christian Fellowship. Subjects he learnt in school. Why he preferred Geography.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 Teaching methods and aids teachers used while he was a student. Limited facilities at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). His reading habits and reading difficulties. Exhibiting of children's work. His extra-curricular activities (ECA). Skills and values gained from scouting. His mother's attitude towards scouting. Difficulties he faced while growing up. What he learnt when travelled to England for a conference in 1956. ACS sports days. School canteen. Welfare of poor students while he was teacher and principal. His most vivid memories of school. His uncle who was a mentor.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 Clerical work he did in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and the development of his interest in teaching. Impact a teacher has on the life of a child. Teaching is a vocation. Differences in teaching secondary and primary school. His teacher training experience. His motivation for community service. He thinks that Singaporeans are generally big-hearted at times of need. Prevention of abuse of goodwill services. History, funding and development of Methodist Welfare Services.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 The funding of Methodist Welfare Services. Skills he developed during teacher training. Usefulness of part-time teacher training. Why he taught at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Satisfaction in going back to his Alma Mater. Difference between government and government-aided school teachers. His opinion on teachers who give private tuition. The pockets of poverty in affluent Singapore which need help from volunteers. Ways of inculcating empathy for the poor in his school while he was principal.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 Ways of inculcating empathy for the poor in the school while he was a principal. Difference between students of Lee Kuo Chuan School, Towner School (primary) and Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Differences in teaching boys and girls. Differences in attitudes of teaching staff in Lee Kuo Chuan School, Towner School and ACS. Motivation of teachers who do not pull their weight. Assessing teacher's work. His method of discipline and class management. Occasions when students warrant corporal punishment. Consultation with parents on corporal punishment. Incident where a Primary 1 pupil intentionally hurt his classmate.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 8 Intention of corporal punishment as essential in the reformation of a child. Location of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) when he was first teaching. Subjects he taught in secondary school. How teaching literature has helped him, his students and also primary pupils. Why "Reach for the Sky" by Douglas Bader influenced him and his students. How he encouraged students in non-academic subjects. Organisation of remedial and supplementary classes for weak and good students. Mental abilities of majority of the school cohort. His definition of academic performance. Mission of Christian mission school. When he asks a student to leave school.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 9 Why educationists should be in forefront of community development. His definition of good quality education. Opinion on ranking schools and its effects on the quality of education. His participation on the ranking of teachers. Cause for disillusionment with teaching. How he helped teachers who were frustrated. How Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) maintained itself financially before and after the People's Action Party (PAP) came into power. How his teachers encouraged him to read. How he as teacher and principal encouraged students to read.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 10 How his teachers encouraged him to read. Reading comics encouraged reading. The genre of books contemporary children enjoy. How he as teacher and vice-principal at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) encouraged reading. The need to give children time to play and the organisation of times of play. Children and computer games. The use of reading corners and library to encourage reading. Meeting needs of academically weak students through personal teaching from teacher and peer tutoring.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 11 Minimising the children's difficulties in learning through immediate correction of work. He has never given up on difficult students. Integration in education at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Building empathy among the ACS students for disadvantaged people. The role and formation of the Parent Support Group. Bullying in the school. Things done for the victims of bullying. Bullying in primary and secondary school. Specific values he emphasised and inculcated as teacher and as principal.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 12 Values he emphasised as teacher and principal. Reaction of some students towards the "Use Your Hands" campaign. His disapproval of detention as a form of discipline. Methodist Welfare Services. Building layout and facilities of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) at Barker Road and Anglo-Chinese Junior School. Size of teaching staff of the Anglo-Chinese Primary School and the Anglo-Chinese Junior School. His adaptation of vice-principalship from Anglo-Chinese Junior and Anglo-Chinese Primary School. Reason for his transfer from Anglo-Chinese Junior School to Anglo-Chinese Primary School.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 13 How teachers can encourage appreciation of poetry in children. How he taught poetry to his students. How and why he organised peer tutoring. Backgrounds of the students of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Enrolment criteria for ACS. His comparison between parents' attitudes during colonial and present times. Feels it is important that one parent if possible should stay home to personally care for young children.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 14 He feels it is important that one parent if possible should stay home to personally care for young children. Hiring and firing of teachers during colonial and present times. Presence of expatriate missionary teachers in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Subjects and time allocation for each subject. Emphasis on the three Rs. Animation of moral education lessons before "Being and Becoming". Decision on which textbooks to be used was made by principal.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 16 How he assessed students' work as a literature teacher. How he dealt with students who did not seem to participate. His assessment of students' work as a vice-principal. The frequency and purpose of school inspector's visit. Why a principal observed classroom teaching. Conferencing with teachers after classroom teaching observation. Criteria in teacher assessment. His personal self assessment as a teacher. Animation of staff meetings when he was a teacher and vice-principal at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS)
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 17 Staff meetings when he was a teacher and vice-principal at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). His role as a link person between teachers, parents and the Ministry of Education (MOE) in the event of changing policies. How he assessed staff and wrote their confidential reports. His assessment as vice-principal by his principal. How he got help and advice as vice-principal. His personal self assessment as a vice-principal. Description of his typical day as a teacher. Problems he faced as a discipline master. His philosophy on discipline and punishment.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 19 Why he became vice-principal. His style of management. His comparison of the education system during colonial and present times. Curriculum emphasis during colonial times and under People's Action Party (PAP). The importance and the "how to" for youth to be aware of their roots. Colonial government's attitude towards vernacular education. The job prospects and opportunity for tertiary education for the students of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) during colonial times. Why former students of ACS have assumed positions of leadership. The changes in school policy and management when PAP came into power.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 20 The reaction of teachers to People's Action Party's (PAP) measures. Anglo-Chinese School's (ACS) progress in bilingualism. His opinion that the period between 1959 and the early 1960s was one of change for ACS. ACS is affiliated to the Methodist Church. The function of the School Board of Management and the Old Boys' Association.
CHIA, Peter Joe 1749 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 21 The services of Old Boys' Association to students and staff of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). The effect People's Action Party's (PAP) massive school building project had on ACS. The reason for ACS's high academic performance. The school chaplain and full-time Christian education officers. ACS's relationship with other Methodist schools. The induction of new teachers. Students that impress him. The Teachers' Union. The organisations - Singapore Children's Society and Children's Charities' Association - which he is involved in.
CHOE, Alan Fook Cheong 1891 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 2 Further elaboration on family life, his children and grandchildren. How family members take annual vacation together. Elaboration on his education. Memories of Pearl's Hill School, Outram Road School and Raffles Institution (RI). Elaboration of happy days in RI. Impression of teachers in RI. Description of the functional architecture of early schools. His favourite subjects, childhood pastime and love for sports. His opinion on the difference between a student from Raffles Institution and one from Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in the early days.
CHOO Teck Hong 527 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Location of Hylam Kongsi. Different clans had hotels for newly arrived immigrants. Studied in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in 1910 at age of 6. Recalled Eurasian teachers; curriculum. Tried to hide pigtail during school. Attire worn by boys. Books used in lower and upper secondary school. Moved to Joo Chiat after First World War (WW I). Modes of transportation. Latin language being taught. Became teacher at age of 16.
CHOO Teck Hong 527 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 Relationship with teachers. Books used for Latin lessons. Joo Chiat neighbourhood in 1920s; its businesses and community. Location of Education Department. Procedure for applying to be a teacher. Attached to Gan Eng Seng School. Deep impression of how students were disciplined. Teaching at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Compared teaching style of both schools. Usage of classrooms at ACS. No age limitation for admission to school then.
CHOO Teck Hong 527 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 Attended training classes for teachers conducted by Education Department. His art teacher. Activities at YMCA, Stamford Road. Practical training for trainee teachers. Teaching in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) at Canning Rise till Japanese Occupation. Changes in Hylam Street. His brother practised medicine along Rochor Road.
CHOO Teck Hong 527 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 9 Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) closed during Japanese Occupation. Recruited by Japanese City Council to be trainee teacher. Three months training under Japanese teachers. Taught Japanese language in Bukit Panjang Secondary School. Few students received free education. Rations given to teachers. Modes of transportation then. Morale of teachers. Transferred to three other schools. Teachers had to plant tapioca once a week. Teachers were respected.
CHOO Teck Hong 527 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 10 Involved in Medical Auxiliary Service (MAS). Bombing by Japanese during last days of occupation. Received news of Japanese surrender from secret radio. Brother escaped to Bombay and practised medicine there. Returned to Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) after Japanese surrender. Changes in education system in post-war years. Changes in teaching staff. Became headmaster of Anglo-Chinese Junior School. Age limitation imposed for school admission.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 3 Relationship with father. How Easter and Christmas were observed. Indian festivals not celebrated. How servants were treated in family. His views on foreign domestic maids in present Singapore. His early education at Methodist Girls' School, Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and Serangoon English School. Impressions teachers made on him. No systematic religious training at schools. English lessons were often scripture lessons. Recollection of ACS.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 12 Origin of Tamil Methodist Church - started with Oldham administering to Tamils in prison. Number of Tamil Methodists in pre-war. When Tamil professionals stayed on in Singapore, church increased. Pre-war church services in Tamil. Tamil Christian culture preserved in Singapore - lyrical singing, hymns sang in Tamil. Tamils good contributors to church fund. His views on sufficiency of Tamil pastors.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 26 Became pastor of Tamil Methodist Church. His methods of getting more participation. How he became District Superintendent. His duties as District Superintendent. Appointed Conference Secretary for Christian education in 1950. How he developed Christian education in Methodist schools and Sunday schools. Allocation of American fund for programme. Reasons for his reluctance to ask for money. Background to formation of Punjabi Methodist Church.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 27 Punjabi congregation now merged with Anglican Church. History of Christian ministry among Indians. His involvement in Council of Churches Commission as Secretary and in Tamil Bible Institute in Johore Bahru. Christian conferences which he attended. Recollection of government sponsored conference he attended at Lagos. Growth of Methodist Church in terms of resources and personnel.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 28 Growth of Christian education in Methodist schools. Conditions for election of Bishop. How he was appointed Bishop. His new tasks as Bishop. Getting churches to be more mission minded. Encouraged campus crusade. Travelled a lot as Bishop, visiting smaller towns. Highlight of his work as Bishop.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 29 Books he published in Christian education and while in Teachers' Training College (TTC). After retirement, worked on his thesis. Currently, writing his autobiography and producing pamphlets for the Church. What he sees as progress of Methodists in Singapore. Why there was great success among Peranakans. Why schools had not done as much. Strength of Methodist Church.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 1 Personal background. Wife's and his paternal family all connected to church work. Father's background. Came to Singapore in 1912. Father's job before teaching in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Mother's profession. Came here with infant son. Why father came to Singapore. His involvement with Tamil church. Became pastor in 1920. Mother died in 1916. Children brought up by aunts. Description of family house in Klang Road.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 3 Relationship with father. How Easter and Christmas were observed. Indian festivals not celebrated. How servants were treated in family. His views on foreign domestic maids in present Singapore. His early education at Methodist Girls' School, Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and Serangoon English School. Impressions teachers made on him. No systematic religious training at schools. English lessons were often scripture lessons. Recollection of ACS.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 4 Buildings around Coleman Street area. Background of founding of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in 1885. Started with 13 boys. Gan Eng Seng School also started about same time. Later he moved to Serangoon English School. Location and size of school. In 1924, followed Father to Teluk Anson where he became headmaster of ACS and pastor of church. Completed School Certificate in 1927. Recollection of ACS in Teluk Anson.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 7 His involvement in Epworth League (now MYF). Passed 1st year Normal Training in 1929. Got scholarship to Raffles College. Entitlement of scholarship. Prejudices against College. Lecturers who made impressions on him. His contemporaries in College. System of teaching. College life. Nature of Diploma in Arts and Certificate in Education course. Taught in Seremban; then in Anglo-Chinese School, Singapore. Background to founding of ACS.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 8 Early history of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Other buildings in Coleman Street. Size of ACS when he first joined. Description of secondary school in Cairnhill. Chapel service. Number of teachers in school. Background of pupils. Began as rich men's children school. Ethnic proportion in school. Subjects he enjoyed teaching. Standard of students.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 9 Extra-curricular facilities in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Satisfied with salary received. His working routine. Stayed back after school for library or extra lessons to boys. His responsibility to supervise cricket and literary activities. Gave tuition to good students as well. Stayed in boarding house run by Java Chinese in Orchard Road; $42 for board and lodging. Only 30 boarders. Description of Orchard Road, from Cairnhill junction to Dhoby Ghaut.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 16 First impression of Japanese soldiers. Witnessed victory march. What he knew of mass screening of Chinese community. All teachers reported at St Joseph's Institution (SJI) for registration. Posted back to Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Less than half of students returned. How schools were run. Teachers had to learn, then teach in Japanese. Where he studied Japanese. Teachers' salary then. Given rations as well.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 20 His involvement in Christian conferences for young people. Overseas scholarship to America and England for further training in education and theology. On return, resumed teaching in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). School moved to Barker Road, Headmaster Hinge left; Dr Peterson took over. Comparison of Hinge and Dr Peterson. Description of Pre-U classes; calibre of students. Size of secondary school. His responsibilities on return from scholarship.
DORAISAMY, Theodore Royahan (Bishop) 530 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 21 Number of expatriate teachers in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in pre- and post-war. Performance of ACS compared to other schools. Unrest in Chinese schools in mid-1950s not affecting ACS. School had anti-establishment Chinese students occasionally; not able to influence other students. Reasons for difference in perception and expectation of Chinese educated compared to English educated. Left ACS in 1958 to join Ministry of Education (MOE).
FERNANDEZ, Sheila 569 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 3 Father disciplinarian in family. Typical daily routine. Table manners. Attended Methodist Girls' School in Kuantan, old fashioned school. Background of students. How she went to school. Favourite subjects. Relationship with teachers. Discipline in school. Games after school. What she could not do as a girl. Left school after Standard Six. Values imparted by parents. Prescribed role for eldest girl in family.
GOH Heng Chong (Mrs) 1392 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 1 Father, Teo Eng Hock, a rubber planter. Had rubber factory at Lavender Street and shop at North Bridge Road. Her childhood at North Bridge Road. Father lost money during rubber slump of 1930s. He was member of Kuomintang and friend of Sun Yat Sen. Impressions of father. Her education at Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Subjects studied.
GOH Heng Chong (Mrs) 1392 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 2 Impressions of Capitol, Pavilion and Alhambra cinemas. Description of film shows and musicals. Preparations for Chinese New Year. Grandmother celebrated birthday with wayang performance. How Qing Ming was observed. Moral teaching at Methodist Girls' School (MGS) encouraged thinking of others. Career choice for girls limited to teaching. Member of Girls' Life Brigade, learned singing and sewing.
GOH Koh Pui 288 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 Family background. Stayed in Rochor Road. Poor environment for studying. Went to Anglo-Chinese Primary School. Subjects studied. Went to Chinese primary school in the afternoon.
GOH Koh Pui 288 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 2 More opportunity to learn Mandarin. Continued secondary education at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Moved to Scotts Road. Better environment. Subjects studied. Did well in his exams. Passed Cambridge School Certificate exam in 1937.
HO Kum Wah 564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 2: Chinese) 2 Reasons for the decline in father's laundry business. Laundry shop later moved back to Hock Lam Street. Interviewee studied in Yeung Ching School. Traditional Cantonese custom for a child's first day in school. Closure of their laundry shop. School fees then. Family's living standards improved through uncle's help. Interviewee switched to Anglo-Chinese School. Reason for returning to Yeung Ching School subsequently.
HOW Mun Heng 2320 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 *Recollections of his childhood. Attended Methodist Boys' School in Kuala Lumpur. His playmates as a child and the games they played. Description of his neighbourhood. Played football and swam for Methodist Boys' School. Training and equipment for football. Preferred to study Arts subjects. Explanation of the Malayan education system in 1961.
HU, Catherine Yung Chong 1409 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 Left China with youngest son and daughter for Kuala Lumpur. Pain of leaving eldest son behind. Efforts to get husband and son out. Success. Moved to Singapore. Wanted to teach. Overage for teacher training but obtained entry by working at Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Teacher training. Pupils - description, discipline, welfare.
HU, Catherine Yung Chong 1409 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 Home visits. In 1956, joined Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) afternoon session. Mrs Tay Poh Luan spearheaded welfare efforts. Counselling problem girls. Counselling classes. Teacher training; had to juggle work/home/study, subjects learnt, lecturers remembered. Taught Primary 6 for over 20 years. Subjects taught. Curriculum changes. Teaching methods. Extra coaching - support from principals. Moral education.
HU, Catherine Yung Chong 1409 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 8 Religious education. Fairfield Methodist Girls' School's (MGS) organisation. Merger of morning and afternoon sessions. Fund-raising efforts for new school building. Extra-curricular activities (ECA) duties: escorted girls for swimming classes/excursions. Welfare - old uniforms. Fees. Teachers' pay. Became English co-ordinator; her duties. Staff composition. Refresher courses. Stress on Chinese language. Neil Road facilities inadequate. Plans to expand and move to Dover Road. Fund raising. Reasons for early retirement. Retrospective look.
HUANG Kuan Eng 607 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 5 Mother bought adoptive daughters, age five or six years. Father laid emphasis on their education. She became Christian at age 14 in Yuxiu School. How village elders encouraged young to pursue further education. Living conditions in Ningde. Father became private tutor, in English and Mathematics. Why she transferred from Taosu, founded by Anglicans, to Huanan University, founded by Methodist churches.
HUANG Kuan Eng 607 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 7 First impression of Singapore. Taught at Aiqun School in Batu Pahat. Her effort to start Sunday school failed. Resigned. Studied theology at seminary in Mt Sophia. In 1941, returned to work for women's group in Malacca churches. Returned to Yong Peng during outbreak of war. Became mission worker at Foochow Methodist Church (1942-1952). Life during theological training.
HUANG Kuan Eng 607 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 8 Took refuge in rural area during Japanese Occupation. Took ride to Singapore from lorry driver. Stayed at Foochow Methodist Church at Race Course Road. Pastor was ex-lecturer of Huanan University. Stayed at church until 1951. In 1952, began teaching in Whampoa School; transferred to Kwong Avenue School until 1958.
HUANG Kuan Eng 607 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 9 Started leadership training classes for women church members in 1958. Encouraged by warm response from church members during visit to Sitiawan and Sibu. Missionary training in United States in 1963. Retired in 1973. Her opinions on role of Foochow Methodist Church in Foochow community. Four sections under Women's Society for Christian Service. Her views on role of women church members.
HUANG, Raymon Thien Hui 2164 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 42 Professor Chao Tzee Cheng. Practice of Rotary Club to invite guest speakers to talk about different topics. Work of the Singapore Anti-Tuberculosis Association and Singapore Anti-Narcotics Association. Concern over drug abuse in 1970s and 1980s. Role as Sunday School teacher and Chairman of Social Concerns Sub-Committee of Wesley Methodist Church. How he was introduced to Rotary Club of Singapore in June 1971. Aims and objectives of social service organisations are generally the same. Kept putting off presidency of the club until nomination in 1983. Heart-attack prevented him from becoming President in 1984. Club President from 1988-1989.
HWANG Chung Yun (Mrs) 237 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 Improved facilities in Pearl's Hill School. A year later moved to Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) which had boarding facilities. Description of her nonya class teacher - hair style and clothing. Method used in piercing of ears. Influenced to become a Methodist while in Fairfield. Girls of many different races in school. Subjects taught. Family and business moved to Spring Street. Father re-married again.
JAMES, George 352 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 3 Attended Anglo-Chinese School in Nibong Tebal for 4 years. His teachers. Church service on Sundays. Mother had domestic help to do housework. Visits to mother's friends. Reasons for leaving Nibong Tebal. Father went on long leave to Ceylon. They left for Kuala Lumpur to stay with mother's cousin. He continued schooling at Methodist Boys' School. Impressions of his teachers.
KAN Keng Fong (Mrs) (Group Interview) 1922 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 Swam at public and private pools. Swimming costumes in the 1930s. High Street was a popular shopping area. Sewed own school uniform. Description of High Street. Memories of the tram. Not allowed to go to New World. Relationship with classmates. First day in Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Feelings towards school song, crest and motto. Description of school building. Afternoon school was for the overage girls.
KAN Keng Fong (Mrs) (Group Interview) 1922 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 No duty rosters. Subjects they learnt. Class library. Games Day. Fund raising for the school. Visited teachers during school holidays. Extra lessons. How Sunday school started in Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Classmates who dropped out of school to get married.
KAN Keng Fong (Mrs) (Group Interview) 1922 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 A classmate who died of typhoid. Most girls joined nursing after graduation. Street hawkers outside the school. Pocket money. Weekend movies. Love canteen food. Memories of rickshaws, trams and Indian contract labourers. Cantonese was used in school. Transferred to Methodist Girls' School (MGS) for Senior Cambridge class. Life in MGS. Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) after the war. Got her school results after war.
KAN Keng Fong (Mrs) (Group Interview) 1922 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 Life during the war. First feel of teaching. Adopting husband's surname after marriage was a norm. Only single teachers were recruited in Teachers' Training College (TTC) before 1953. Pay reduction in 1959. Training in TTC. Subjects she taught. Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) was divided into primary and secondary schools when moved to Dover Road. How she felt about the separation.
KAN Keng Fong (Mrs) (Group Interview) 1922 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 How she felt about the recruitment of boys and the new school building. Strong sense of belonging. Condition of Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) after the war. Coping with overaged students. Taught all subjects. Principals whom she had to work with. Impression of the Principal, Mrs Goh Soon Hoo. Untrained teachers would teach in MGS Afternoon School, a private school. Some teachers paid for students who could not afford school fees.
KAN Keng Fong (Mrs) (Group Interview) 1922 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 9 How teachers felt about training. Criteria for enrolment in Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). School registration queue-up began in 1980s. How the school coped with the demand. Example of a difficult student. Increased student population. Social class of students. Students' academic results were good. How school and students coped with bilingual policy. Activities implemented to increase students' interest in Chinese language and culture.
KAN Keng Fong (Mrs) (Group Interview) 1922 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 11 School was affiliated to Methodist Mission. Religious background of students. Influence of religion on the students. Strength of Christian mission school. View on streaming. History of Fairfield Old Girls' Association. Response of the old girls to the association's activities. Role of the association in school's fund raising. Few girls like to hold office. Activities of the association.
KAO, James Jih Eng ( Rev ) 593 Special Project 1 *Personal and family background. How his father became a pastor. His father's contributions to community as pastor. His father retired at 63 and migrated to Nanyang. How he became a missionary in Trinity Church, Sitiawan. Posted to Foochow Methodist Church. Church destroyed by bombings during Japanese Occupation.
KAO, James Jih Eng ( Rev ) 593 Special Project 2 *Process of rebuilding Foochow Methodist Church. His postings to different parts of Malaya. Why he was later posted to Geylang Methodist Church. Problems he faced when building Geylang Methodist Girls' School. How his grandfather became a Christian. His father was sent to school by missionaries. His suggestion to stamp out opium-smoking in his village in China was supported by other villagers.
KAO, James Jih Eng ( Rev ) 593 Special Project 9 *Posted to Foochow Methodist Church at Race Course Road in 1947. How Race Course Road looked like then. Foochow Methodist Church's members were mainly Hockchews and Hockchias; their main occupations. How he got church members to donate enough money to rebuild Foochow Methodist Church. Dr Chen Shunan helped him in rebuilding Foochow Methodist Church.
KAO, James Jih Eng ( Rev ) 593 Special Project 10 *Foochow Methodist Church's foundation stone laying ceremony. Solution to problems of conducting too many services in different languages and dialects at Foochow Methodist Church at Waterloo Street. During Japanese Occupation, churches were used as occasional centre and massage parlour. Problem of having insufficient funds for rebuilding of church - went to Malaya to raise funds.
KAO, James Jih Eng ( Rev ) 593 Special Project 11 *Foochow Methodist Church became a refugee camp during Japanese Occupation. Ways in which Foochow Methodist Church helped church members' children. Activities conducted by Foochow Methodist Church. Role which the Church played in births and deaths of church members. Why the government took away church's power to legally seal a marriage.
KHOO Teng Soon 475 Special Project 2 No tuition. His favourite subjects. Good knowledge in religion. Friends visited one another. Father introduced bar. Waking up in morning for school is a problem. Moved into 4 bungalows which cost $28,000. Father smoked opiumto ease pressure. Passed Anglo-Chinese School in 1938. First job at Singapore Cold Storage at 17 years old as ledger clerk. Salary $30 a month. European shopped at Singapore Cold Storage.
KIANG Ai Kim (Mrs) 1698 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Her mother was not educated. Why she cried on her first day of school. Why she went to Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Attire she wore to school. Why she went to Hongkong. Things she did in school. Mother did not show love to her children. She had a fierce teacher in Standard 2. Mother felt that English education is better than Chinese education.
KIANG Ai Kim (Mrs) 1698 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 School play. Father was a prominent personality in Chinatown. Types of disciplinary actions taken in Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Her impression of one of her teachers. Games played in school. School tuckshop. School had fun fair to raise money. Afternoon classes were for overage students. Classroom facilities. Craft work in school. School's Christmas celebration. School had relief teachers. School outings at the end of school term.
KIANG Ai Kim (Mrs) 1698 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 Why she studied Chinese on her own. How she learnt her Chinese. What she did during weekends. Stayed in Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) from 1926-1932. Mixed feelings about going to Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Reasons for her move. Initial feelings when she was in MGS. Subjects she took. There was a boarding school in MGS. Rivalry between the MGS girls and the newcomers.
KIANG Ai Kim (Mrs) 1698 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 Relationship between students and teachers. Transport to school. Left Methodist Girls' School (MGS) in 1935 for Raffles College. Why she went to Raffles College. Interviewee drifted into teaching. Interaction between professors and students in college. Took three subjects. No graduation ceremony. There was no thesis writing for their Honours. Mild ragging for girls in college. College population. What they wore in college. College fees.
KRISHNASAMY Ramachandra 1407 Special Project 5 School life in 1940s. Attended private school in Queen Street. Description of school, subjects and school hours. School disrupted during Japanese Occupation. Attended Anglo-Chinese Primary School (ACPS) post-war. Description of ACPS, subjects and teachers. After leaving school, took up job with British Ordnance Depot. Subsequent jobs. Served part-time National Service.
LAU Siew Khim 1605 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 Bengali guard cooking chapati; relationship with guard. Home in Geylang from 1934 to 1940; trees in garden. Reasons for moving; effects on schooling; problems with transport. Relationship with eldest sister. Father's spelling checks. Further education through nursing. Use of Teochew at home. Dual education in Geylang Methodist Girls' School (MGS) and a Chinese school. Reasons for joining Chinese school; description of classes and teachers.
LAU Siew Khim 1605 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 Geylang Methodist Girls' School (MGS) building - chapel, classes, principal's office, tennis court, drill hall. Principal's (Mrs E S Lau) sons join classes. Emphasis on grammar and spelling. Examinations, helping others study for exams, backward students. Types of homework, when and where it is done, dictionary used. Unseen dictation by Principal. Relationship with Principal, with Principal's husband and with teachers. Description of class desks, school bags.
LAU Siew Khim 1605 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 10 At Kuo Chuan Girl's School (later known as Presbyterian Girls' School) in 1941. Reasons for skipping Standard 4 and entering Standard 5; lower standard compared with Geylang Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Principal (Miss Dryburgh). Location and relationship with Choon Guan English & Chinese schools (later known as Presbyterian Boys' School). Foreboding of war as seen in prayers and siren practices. Canteen and recess routine. Kuo Chuan Girl's School teachers. School terms, Sports Day events, netball competitions. Duties of captain of house teams. Academic challenges between teams.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 Parents' background. Father attached to Telok Ayer Methodist Church for a year before he became pastor of Geylang Methodist Church. Why father headed Anglo-Chinese Continuation School. Mother was headmistress of Geylang Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Parents' family background. Why father left Java to study in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Geylang in 1930s. Interviewee learnt to amuse himself since young.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 Reasons for his philosophy of letting people go at their own pace. He was in Geylang Methodist Girls' School (MGS) for a year before joining Standard 2A in Anglo-Chinese Primary School (ACPS) subsequently. His teacher, Mr Sundram, used to give students monetary incentives to encourage them to study. Illustrations of Mr Sundram's professionalism as a teacher. How he learnt value of thoroughness from him.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 31 The government at one point was purely instructional, without addressing moral and spiritual aspects of school life. Changes after People's Action Party (PAP) came into power. Increased school enrolment as population increased. Methodist schools had own provident fund; later transferred to Central Provident Fund about 1963/64. Mission schools had no social and medical benefits.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 39 One demanding aspect of teaching profession is maturity. A teacher's maturity is being tested in class. Stressed necessity for maturity in teaching. His view that responsibility of looking for an alternative school for expelled students lies with the parents. Chinese Methodist High School moved into Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in mid-1960s and remained there for a few years.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 43 Why he did not like to observe teachers in class. One major problem for him as a principal was shortage of teachers. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) afternoon session was a privately-run continuation school in early days; also once called Oldham Methodist School. Some people viewed his move to afternoon session as senior assistant as a demotion. How he encouraged and motivated weaker students.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 59 He had good relationship with Ministry of Education (MOE). Board of Governors provided no guidance for him. Involved in Christian education in Kampong Kapor Methodist Church; also Head of Finance Commission in church. His responsibilities. Was one of key personalities in church. Reasons why Christian education was done informally. Number of people involved in Christian education in church.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 60 Functions of Christian Education Commission. Commission played an advisory and facilitating role. By late 1960s, Christian education was on its way out. In late 1960s, early 1970s, Methodist Church in Singapore split from Malaysia. He felt that there was too much delay in the separation. Reactions towards the split.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 74 Background of his father, Reverend E S Lau and Reverend Goh Hood Keng. Father was asked to start English work at Telok Ayer Methodist Church. Went to Geylang Methodist Church a year later; remained there till around 1953 before joining Kampong Kapor Methodist Church. Why students were attracted to Methodist churches. Father was first English congregation pastor in Geylang Methodist. Relationship amongst Chinese, English and Peranakan sections in church.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 76 How he helped his father to prepare for worship service. Why Methodist Church suffered more during Japanese Occupation than others. Why he was so aware of pitfalls in church life during Japanese Occupation. Where Geylang Church was temporarily housed during Japanese Occupation. Father did farming in school. Father was asked to look after Methodist Book Room. Disintegration of British Empire.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 77 Methodist Church in Singapore gained autonomy in 1960s. The church has more money than before. Budget for the church increased over the years. Views on the value of things. Competition for most expensive things in Singapore. He felt that we should change our perception regarding some social, economic issues.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 80 Reverend Goh Hood Keng was the lifelong pastor of Kampong Kapor Methodist Church. Interviewee's financial situation at home. Methodist Church of Singapore and Malaysia became autonomous from the American Methodist Church before separating from each other. He was in discussion team for the split. History of Methodist Book Room. Father was asked to resuscitate book room after the war.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 83 Church looks after families in distress. Also helps weak students through computers in church. How church attempts to identify itself with community. Was asked to be archivist of Methodist Centre after death of Bishop Doraisamy. His problems as an archivist in Methodist Centre.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 Parents' background. Father attached to Telok Ayer Methodist Church for a year before he became pastor of Geylang Methodist Church. Why father headed Anglo-Chinese Continuation School. Mother was headmistress of Geylang Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Parents' family background. Why father left Java to study in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Geylang in 1930s. Interviewee learnt to amuse himself since young.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 Reasons for his philosophy of letting people go at their own pace. He was in Geylang Methodist Girls' School (MGS) for a year before joining Standard 2A in Anglo-Chinese Primary School (ACPS) subsequently. His teacher, Mr Sundram, used to give students monetary incentives to encourage them to study. Illustrations of Mr Sundram's professionalism as a teacher. How he learnt value of thoroughness from him.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Impression of Anglo-Chinese Primary School (ACPS) during his schooldays. Relaxed atmosphere in school. Boys' behaviour in school was exemplary during his time. Facilities in school were basic. Felt that teachers now lack power of language and imagination as compared with past teachers. School had annual year-end concert at Victoria Hall. Joined Life Boys. People created own music to amuse themselves.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 Reasons why he hated to see people throwing food away. Memory of Anglo-Chinese Primary School (ACPS) was coloured by its smell. His school was used as Anglo-Chinese Continuation School in the afternoon. School was like an extended large family. Principals had a lot of authority in school in those days. Why father forced him to study Chinese. Social background of his classmates.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 His school desk. Class size. He felt that use of pen and ink made people write properly and think before they write. Food in school canteen. Bringing sandwiches to school was considered 'superior'. Things they did during recess. Why it was considered 'superior' to eat sandwiches in school. Younger students carried slates to school. Anglo-Chinese Primary School (ACPS) had weekly assembly. Singing in school.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 A lot of moral, cultural and spiritual concepts were caught more than taught in those days. Chapel service more of story than lecture time. Students given scope to grow up in those days. Anglo-Chinese Primary School (ACPS) fees $2.50 per month. He felt that teachers need to be morally and intellectually strong. Students had fewer subjects but more thorough then.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 His view that there is an information overload nowadays. What they did for Art at Anglo-Chinese Primary School (ACPS). Talked mainly about great men in school assembly. Chapel service chaired by headmaster. Little homework then. Some kids attended Chinese lessons in addition to regular English education. His view on education.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 8 Types of disciplinary actions taken in those days. Why some parents sent kids for Chinese lessons after school. Chinese lessons were later taught in Anglo-Chinese Afternoon School. Why father sent him for Chinese lessons. Most parents sent children for Chinese lessons out of patriotism, especially after Japan attacked China. Limited reading materials then. Number of classes in school.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 9 A lot of teachers at Anglo-Chinese Primary School (ACPS) were old boys from Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). His teachers were committed and well-developed people. Value concepts were caught more from teachers' actions than taught. Basically, eastern and Christian values were taught. Class monitor chosen by teacher. Extra-curriclar activities (ECA) not emphasised in those days and left to interest of students. What they learned in Cubs, Life Boys.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 13 Schoolchildren given palm oil to drink. A lot of children did not attend school then. Messages from Japanese were mostly transmitted to school principal via phone. Some teachers went to Endau and Bahau. His Japanese boss. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in Cairnhill was roped off as a comfort station. Locals had a false sense of security and were hence not prepared for war.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 18 Due to war, he had to complete Cambridge School Certificate within two years. The war matured him. Post-war student-teacher relationship. Why he returned to school half a year after the war. Some of his teachers were taken away by Japanese during war. T W Hinch, Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) principal was prisoner of war. His background and personality. Reasons for the boys' loyalty to ACS.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 20 To him, English is the language of opportunity. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) boys were mostly from families that did not require knowledge of Chinese. He felt that these students should be allowed to study Malay. His opinion on second language policy. His reasons for the lack of people joining teaching profession. Went to Oxford after graduating from United States.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 21 His education in United Kingdom. His definition of essence of education. Why he returned to Singapore after graduation in 1955. Obtained Diploma in Education in United Kingdom. Why he wanted to be a teacher. His pay. His practical training in an English public school. Why he joined Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). How he was bullied as a young teacher.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 23 His definition of a good teacher. Specialist teachers and their pay. Took him 16 years to become senior assistant in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in 1971. Teachers in government schools had faster promotion. Felt that there are fewer teachers who are professional nowadays. Values he taught his students. Used to give himself the weakest class to teach when he was senior assistant.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 24 He objected to labelling students. He believes in streaming to the extent that it indicates how one is doing. Streaming in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Attitudes of parents, teachers and principal affect the extent of a child's self-fulfilling prophecy. To him, a teacher is not just an instructor of knowledge but also moulder of a student's life. Why he by-passed teaching job interview.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 25 Great demand for teachers in 1970s resulted in a serious shortage of good candidates. More female than male teachers in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) then. Disadvantages and advantages of having female teachers. Shortage of male teachers in boys' schools. Education was in terms of quantity in 1960s. He was told to resume Religious Knowledge in school by Dr Goh Keng Swee in late 1970s.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 27 Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) had two classes in Latin for those who wanted to do medicine. There were four classes per standard. Insufficient science facilities and teachers in school. Why they had girls in Form 6 class. How political changes affected education policy. ACS closed during curfew in 1960s riots. Changes after 1959.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 29 Demand in school increased. Shortage of teachers meant greater tolerance for uncooperative teachers. His views regarding language policy. Was asked to teach Ethics and Bible Knowledge at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in late 1970s. His definition of gracious living. He felt that continuous education in a school enabled development of a child's leadership. His students' background. Dr Goh Keng Swee's anti-snobbery campaign.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 30 Continuation on issue of snobbery. Religious Knowledge an optional subject until its termination in 1968. It was revived in late 1970s by Dr Goh Keng Swee. Most teachers of Religious Knowledge in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) were Christians. Changing value system due to affluence and improvement in communication. Difference between East and West in bringing-up children. Chapel services attended by non-Christians in the past.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 32 Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) Board of Governors did not fight for teachers' benefits. The Board lacked leadership during his principalship. Most stressful period for teachers was in late 1960s and 1970s. His opinion and relationship with the Board during his principalship. Preferred to deal directly with Ministry of Education (MOE) then. Felt that Board was irrelevant.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 33 Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) Board of Governors was unaware of happenings in school. How Board members were selected. Why he quit Graduate Teachers' Association; later called Singapore Teachers' Union (STU). Did not find Board and union relevant. Extra-curricular activities (ECA) became important in late 1960s and early 1970s because points were given. Subjects he taught. ECA he was in-charge of.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 34 He created Janus Club in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and was also house master. His other extra-curricular activities (ECA). Also very involved in life of school as he has no children. He felt that a student's character development is as important as his academic results. His views that teachers are born, not made. His opinions on the qualities of a good teacher.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 39 One demanding aspect of teaching profession is maturity. A teacher's maturity is being tested in class. Stressed necessity for maturity in teaching. His view that responsibility of looking for an alternative school for expelled students lies with the parents. Chinese Methodist High School moved into Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in mid-1960s and remained there for a few years.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 40 Shortage of teachers made selection very difficult. A person with working experience would be a more confident teacher. No career path in teaching. Took 20 years to become principal in mission school. To him, family values can make or break educational system. Had to deal with snobbery in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) when he was principal.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 41 Why teachers need to be able to teach students to deal with change. When he was a principal, he could not select teachers due to teacher shortage. Anglo-Chinese School's (ACS) relaxed school atmosphere in early days. Students motivated to do well for sake of their school in early days. Changes in students' attitudes towards achievement. Plays and Fun-O-Drama in school.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 42 His opinion on ranking of schools. He became Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) afternoon session's senior assistant in 1971. Taught both morning and afternoon sessions. Tried to improve image of weaker students in afternoon session. Did not believe in paper qualifications. His job responsibilities. Instilled a sense of self-worth in his weaker students. Managed school with limited resources.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 43 Why he did not like to observe teachers in class. One major problem for him as a principal was shortage of teachers. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) afternoon session was a privately-run continuation school in early days; also once called Oldham Methodist School. Some people viewed his move to afternoon session as senior assistant as a demotion. How he encouraged and motivated weaker students.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 44 Boosted morale of students by teaching them. Why he was generous in giving marks to weaker pupils. Circumstances under which he would whack his students. Incident where a parent came to see him regarding a disciplinary action he had taken. Anglo-Chinese School's (ACS) principal never interfered in his job. Anti-snobbery campaign. Why he did not believe in counselling.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 45 Instances leading to his loss of faith in counselling. Further elaboration on anti-snobbery campaign in school. How he set dress code for students. Felt that Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) was being singled out for snobbery. Relationship between snobbishness and society's level of affluence. Felt that it is difficult to control and define snobbery.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 46 Further elaboration on issue of snobbery. Reactions of teachers and students at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) towards anti-snobbery campaign. Elaboration on his responsibilities as senior assistant. Staff strength. His working hours. How he managed teachers. During his principalship, he was involved in South Zone School Council. His relationship with teachers.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 47 Elaboration on his relationship with teachers. His relationship with principal. Relationship with students changed after he became senior assistant. Why he enjoyed being senior assistant of Secondary 1 and 2 at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). His views on qualities of a leader. His relationship with students' parents. Reasons for parents visiting him. He had no budget as senior assistant.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 48 Had no administrative or budgetary power as senior assistant at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). School inspector visited school when someone was crossing the bar. Meetings with principal were infrequent. His principal. Had fire drill for students; also set standard hairstyle. Felt that teachers should set good examples for students.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 49 Muslim boys excused from chapel service by 1970s. Bible Knowledge no longer taught by late 1960s but re-introduced about 1980. What they did for chapel service. His reaction towards promotion to principalship of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Teachers unwilling to apply for principalship. Board of Governors did not give him any support. Relied more on Ministry of Education (MOE) for recruitment of teachers.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 50 His promotion to senior assistant did not correspond with pay increase. Felt that there was no promotional ladder in teaching profession in early days. Qualities of a good leader. How he selected senior assistants when he became principal. Financial problems for Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) as all funds were channelled to Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC). His working hours.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 51 He would test boys entering Secondary 1 and 2. Frequency of Board of Governors' meeting. Why he could not use fun fairs to raise funds for Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Felt that Chinese school students were more forthcoming when donating money to schools. How he dealt with boys asking for transfer. ACS had limited vacancies then as it was operating at full capacity.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 52 Class size was more restrictive in early days. Parents would normally give donations to school when asked. How he prioritised his limited resources. Drama production was part of Anglo-Chinese School's (ACS) tradition. ACS used to have Literary Society period but was stopped by Ministry of Education (MOE). Felt that schools were not given enough freedom during his time.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 53 Ministry of Education (MOE) was more prepared to spend money on music programmes in schools in later years. Why Singapore Teachers' Union (STU) was weak. Teachers found lack of freedom restrictive. Janus Club in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Why he felt that the Political Study, attended by some teachers in 1960s, should be continued and expanded. MOE tended to command rather than lead in late 1960s and early 1970s. His opinion of the MOE.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 54 Schools in 1970s were controlled by Ministry of Education (MOE). Why he was closer to MOE than Board of Governors. He felt that the absence of clear leadership in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) finally led to the separateness between Anglo-Chinese schools. Reasons for Anglo-Chinese Junior College's (ACJC) failure to attract students from ACS. School's Chinese examinations result improved under his principalship. Relationship between ACS and ACJC.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 55 Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC) published their school magazines separately. ACJC's principal was the Education Secretary of Board of Governors. Further elaboration on the Board. He was chairman of South Zone Schools. Reasons for setting up of zone schools. His duties as chairman. Was also member of Singapore School Council. His philosophy for the school.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 56 Subjects he emphasised in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). How he tried to improve standard of Chinese. Types of Chinese activities organised. Questioned standard of Chinese one can achieve in school. His stress on swimming. Felt that one should not go overboard in pushing Chinese language. A lot of his students migrate because of second language policy.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 57 Spent a lot of time in school at the expense of his personal life. His views that a good teacher needs to read a lot. Was asked by a British textbook company to produce books for schools. Felt that there is a drop in standard of English. Contents of textbook he produced. Anglo-Chinese School's (ACS) long tradition.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 58 Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) students have a strong sense of sentiment for the school. School does not get rid of teachers. Illustration of ACS spirit. He stressed importance of human resource management. ACS has a lot of extra-curricular activities (ECA) and Literary Society periods to develop students. Felt that people tend to be overly concerned about academic matters. Relationship with his teachers changed when he assumed principalship.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 61 He developed human resource skills through negotiation experience during the split. More serious negotiations were carried out after 1972. His administrative experience in church helped him to handle his school. Applied for Anglo-Chinese Junior College's (ACJC) principalship but was not offered. Was not briefed when he took over as principal of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS).
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 62 Further elaboration on his application for Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC) and Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) principalships. There was no discussion between ex-ACS principal and him during his takeover of ACS. He was cut off from ACJC. Teachers and clerk were taken over to ACJC. Had to infuse his students and teachers with enthusiasm after assuming principalship. Felt that teaching had a limited career path.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 63 Teachers' reactions towards being left behind in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). General mood in school under his principalship. His philosophy is to do things to the best of one's ability. Students were his first priority. Ex-ACS principal Thio Chan Bee. Aided schools very important pre-war. Aided schools threatened by growth of government schools after war.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 64 Felt that his assumption of principalship at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) could have been more official. Character profile of Thio Chan Bee. His view that Thio Chan Bee was not suited for politics. Impression of Thio Chan Bee as a teacher and that Thio spent too much time in politics at expense of school. Teachers would lose credibility if they assert discipline without principal's support.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 65 Teachers made use of the lack of discipline under Thio Chan Bee. Further elaboration on his opinion on Thio Chan Bee. Circumstances under which he left Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in 1983. Why he did not tell his staff about his termination. Possible reasons for his termination. Was asked to hand out option forms for Religious Knowledge in school. Reactions towards his termination at age of 55.
LAU, Earnest 1421 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 66 Senior assistant took over Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) principalship two years after he left. Further elaboration on his view on termination. How he obtained job as Assistant Director in textbook and library section, Ministry of Education (MOE). How he coped with initial shock of being terminated. How he rated his own performance. His upbringing.
LEE Kip Lin 16 Japanese Occupation of Singapore, 1942-1945 16 Currency situation and how it affected people. Father's business started again. Resumed his education in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Impact of Japanese Occupation on himself and his contemporaries. Attitude of people to British after Japanese Occupation.
LEE Liang Hye 651 Communities of Singapore (Part 1) 32 Ancestral worship as a way of life for Peranakans. Gave up ancestral worship after conversion to Christianity. Ancestor veneration instead of ancestral worship. For Peranakan Christians, altars for deities and ancestors are removed. Further elaboration on Peranakans acquiring British influences. Role of missionaries in spreading Christianity to Peranakans. Kampong Kapor and Geylang Methodist churches.
LEE Miu Ling (Mrs) 1917 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 6 One of Yow's widows who became poor. Impressions of Yow. Mother was married off while a student. Parents were heavy smokers. Ate at grandmother's house during recess. Father's attitude towards their education. Mother was from Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Education in family. Not encouraged to study Chinese. Going to school by rickshaw. Carried leather school bag. Surroundings and facilities of Fairfield.
LEE Miu Ling (Mrs) 1917 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 7 Chapel service in Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). School songs sung at gatherings. Unity among old girls. Her home support and what she achieved from it. No conflicts among classmates with different dialects. Doesn't want to be tied down by grandchildren. Recollections of teachers. Visited their teachers. Never punished in school. Naughty acts she did. A typical school day. Sports day.
LEE Miu Ling (Mrs) 1917 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 8 School discipline. Notices circulated by school janitor. Moral values taught. Visiting teacher was big event. Monitors of class. Views of 'Use Your Hands' campaign. About school subjects. Liked subjects that needed little study. No home tuition. Trips to Raffles Library. Liked handicrafts. Seating arrangement in class. "A" class students thought to be smarter. Students divided into four "houses" at Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS).
LEE Miu Ling (Mrs) 1917 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 9 Sports day. School concert where students sold tickets. Founder's Day. Went to Methodist Girls' School (MGS) after seventh grade. Adapting to life there. Some classmates got married. Active social life. Partying at weekends. Went swimming. Activities during school holidays. Buying toys at Robinson's. Did not mix with boys. Boys loitering outside Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Hated drinking milk.
LEE Miu Ling (Mrs) 1917 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 10 Threw up milk she drank every morning. Impressions of principals and teachers. Thought it was shameful to be punished in class. Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) Alumni and its activities. Relationship between alumnae and school. Culture Night in 1958. Few girls want to be committee members. Reunion dinner. Joined Chinese Women's Association (CWA). Members mostly from upper class. Helped them by writing minutes.
LEE Seng Gee 1775 Economic Development of Singapore 1 Born in Singapore in 1921. Early education. Sin Chew kindergarten. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and Tao Nan School. Impact of Great Depression on economy and cost of living. Daily routine of attending ACS in morning and Tao Nan in afternoon. General impression of teachers at ACS.
LEE Suan Yew (Dr) 2236 Development of Medical Services in Singapore 1 Born 7 October 1933, Singapore. Family Background. Relationship with his parents. His interest in medicine. Choice between reading law and medicine. Childhood days during the war years. How he dropped out of Japanese school. How he learnt to till the soil and rear poultry. Impact of the war on character moulding. How the family made condensed milk for a living. Learnt to play chess with his brother, Lee Kuan Yew. Went back to Anglo-Chinese School after the war. His role model in school, Dr Thio Chan Bee. Explained why he did not have an Anglo-Saxon name.
LEE Suan Yew (Dr) 2236 Development of Medical Services in Singapore 2 A recollection of his peers in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Games he played in school. How he became a temporary teacher in ACS. He taught students who were two years his junior. Challenge of disciplining the students. Benefits of having taught in ACS. Decision to study overseas. His mother accompanied him overseas. Recollections of the time he spent with his mother. Impressions of the British in the United Kingdom. Recollections of his tutor in Cambridge.
LEE Suan Yew (Dr) 2236 Development of Medical Services in Singapore 6 Rewards as a private practitioner. Intangible benefits of training medical students and making accurate clinical diagnosis. Monetary benefits dependent on patients' economic bearings. Pros and cons of a group practice. Role he played in education. Contributions to Anglo-Chinese School Independent (ACSI). Setting up the boarding school in ACSI. His experience sitting in the Government Parliamentary Committee for Education and Health.
LIM Kheng Ann 2165 Development of Medical Services in Singapore 2 Relationship with his father. Recollections of his grandfather, pastor of Telok Ayer Methodist Church. Recollections of medical school. History of the Department of Dentistry. Tribute to Professor E K Tratman. Description of the foot engine used by the old dentists. Job opportunities for dental graduates in the 1950s.
LIM Kok Ann (Prof) 1385 Development of Medical Services in Singapore 1 His grandfather, Lim Boon Keng. Friendship with Tan Kah Kee who was principal of Amoy University from 1920 to 1936; exerted Peranakan influence on family. Lim Kok Ann Chinese-educated in Amoy, until age 7. Due to family's frequent moves, attended various schools, including Anglo-Chinese Boys'. Grandfather disciplined him in his studies. Grandmother a dominant influence. His family tree. Had few career plans. Tried for Queen's Scholarship at father's suggestion.
LIM, Mary ( Mrs ) 231 Japanese Occupation of Singapore, 1942-1945 1 Born in Malacca. Brought to Singapore. At outbreak of war, moved to Thomson Road. Education in Methodist Girls' School. Started teaching. How they moved to grandmother's house in Thomson Road. Description of grandmother's house. Grandmother's friendship with Japanese friends. Description of air-raid shelter. Moved to Chin Swee Road after Japanese had landed. Hid in attic.
LIM, Mary ( Mrs ) 231 Japanese Occupation of Singapore, 1942-1945 8 How grandmother entertained Japanese officer. Life during British Military Administration period. Japanese currency became valueless. Schools re-opened; back to teaching in September 1945. Number of classes and students in Paya Lebar Methodist School. Students' background. Textbooks used. Differences between pre-war and post-war schools.
MOHAMED Siraj (Haji) 1614 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 Hopes of becoming medical doctor dashed due to father's objection. Left India for Singapore in 1936. Became teacher in Admiralty School the same year. Why he was asked to leave. Gave private tuition. Recommended to teach in City High School. Started at Standard 5 in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) at Coleman Street in 1927. Finished Senior Cambridge in 1934. Daily school routine.
MOHAMED Siraj (Haji) 1614 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 No problems of school discipline then. Religious education. Awarded indentured scholarship in 1934. Returned to India. Joined Benares Hindu University, 1934. Was chief prefect in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) in 1932. Teacher whom he admired most. Recollection of student's life. Devoted full concentration to his studies. President of Workers Education Association. Associate serving brother of St John's Ambulance. Extra-curricular activities (ECA) not compulsory during schooldays.
MOHAMED Siraj (Mrs) 1663 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 9 Primary education at Methodist Girls' School (MGS) in Mount Sophia. Why father chose mission school for children. Enjoyed school life. Subjects studied. Not much teaching aids; yet teachers taught well. Favourite teachers who took interest in students. Why pupils were afraid of principal. School uniform. Chapel service. She was only Muslim in class. Enjoyed scripture - one of school subjects.
NAIDU , Parangsam 1179 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 7 Status and lifestyle of Indian womenfolk simple and centred around homes and families. Girls who went to work were mainly teachers and nurses. Servants were rare and hard to come by. Fair numbers went to schools like Fairfield Girls, Raffles' Girls, Methodist Girls' Schools. He observed fastings, festivals and was a religious man. Caste system not rooted in Singapore, unlike India. Many racial groups like Chettiars, Telegus, etc mistaken for caste.
NAIDU, Lakshmi (Mrs) 110 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 2 Her own education in Methodist Girls' School. What she learnt. Also studied Tamil after school. Not allowed to play till after evening prayer. Stopped schooling at 9 years to do housekeeping. Grandfather objected. His father's job. Disciplining of children by mother. Temples they worshipped at.
NG Beng Siok 1193 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 2: Chinese) 5 Interviewee's mother was very strict. Male tutor was not allowed. Studied in Fairfield Methodist Girls' School at Neil Road in 1938 for half a year. Difficulties encountered. Her decision to teach in Pengerang. Living and teaching conditions there. Left to continue her study in Methodist Girls' Continuation School. Comparison between Chinese and English Schools.
NG Beng Siok 1193 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 2: Chinese) 6 Subjects learned in Methodist Girls' Continuation School. English school students were conservative. Relationship with classmates and teachers. Stopped studying due to Japanese Occupation. Interviewee taught as a relief in a few schools before joining Chong Hock Girls' School.
OH, Patricia Choo Neo 1631 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 Class inspector H R Cheeseman. Difference between upper and lower primary reading classes; textbooks used. Dictation class. Arithmetic classes and advanced lessons in preparation for entry into Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Drawing class and help received by friend. Recitation, Hygiene, Geography and History classes. Recess dismissal. Games played by upper and lower primary. Selection of team-mates. Care-givers during recess. Hawkers.
OH, Patricia Choo Neo 1631 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 10 Song game for selecting team members. Girls who left school and reasons for doing so. Feelings about going to Methodist Girls' School (MGS). MGS teacher's prejudices against Geylang girls. Expectations of Geylang teachers concerning their family responsibilities. Notes teachers gave. Chinese lessons introduced. Relationship with principal, Miss Harvey. Exemption from exams at father's death. Well-dressed art teachers. MGS facilities. Chapel services.
OH, Patricia Choo Neo 1631 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 11 Extra-curricular activities (ECA) - Girls' Brigade, netball, activities while staying back for ECA. Relationship between older Geylang girls and Geylang girls coming into Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Travel to MGS. First day of school in MGS. Relationship with MGS girls. Pocket money spent on sodas. Sports day - parental involvement. Involvement in Geylang concert. MGS classroom block. Lodgings of teacher-missionaries. Cooking facilities - tin oven.
OH, Patricia Choo Neo 1631 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 12 Art classes. Class outing where she had first swimming lesson. Incident of Japanese shopkeeper's detention during invasion. Bombing during exams. Rice supplied by people they sheltered. Charcoal taxis. Teachers in Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Language spoken in school. Afternoon school: students, status, teachers. Students from other feeder schools in MGS and relationships. Student population at 'O' Level. MGS girls' social skills; relations with members of opposite sex.
OH, Patricia Choo Neo 1631 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 13 Inter-school relationships. Chinese class. Methodist Girls' School (MGS) girls concurrently studying in Chinese schools. Gambling games mother played. Inspectors. Teaching career in Geylang Methodist Girls' School (MGS) in 1946; teachers, principal Mrs Teoh, camaraderie. Grant-in-aid policy prohibited training of married teachers. Afternoon school status. Miss Mabel Mitchell was principal in 1948. Salary and high cost of living allowance. Student-teacher relationships. Textbooks. Family life and teaching load.
OH, Patricia Choo Neo 1631 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 14 Family help available for baby-sitting. Shopping after school. Church and school expectations. Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS); Mrs Goh Soon Ho's influence. Trial Primary School Leaving Examination (PLSE) - extra classes given, notes created, training for new science classes. Teachers in Fairfield, relationships with Geylang teachers, teachers' gatherings. McLellan's training in 1954: location, projects, teacher trainees, expectations, discouragements before training. Changes in school structure after training; salary changes.
OH, Patricia Choo Neo 1631 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 15 Staff changes when Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) became single session. Increase of Chinese classes. Transfer of staff. Under People's Action Party (PAP) government - pay-cut, Saturday classes, textbooks, moral education. Teachers pledged money for building fund. Students from large Chinese families; parents registered at 4 am. Girls stealing. Difficulties helping backward students and student's appreciation. Transfer of academically weak Government students in 1960s. Policy changes in marking system.
OH, Patricia Choo Neo 1631 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 16 Activities during period when teachers marked examinations. School outings. Second language teachers. Teachers' involvement in Chapel and Christian ministry. Teaching mathematics to students during holidays. Extra-curricular activities (ECA). Relationship between Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) primary and secondary sections. Sports facilities. Founder's Day celebrations. Fairfield Secondary School's participation in national events. Student-teacher relationships.
PAUL, George Kanagaretnam 1713 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 Background of father. Grandparents catechists. Maternal grandfather sent to Madras to work as a missionary. Transferred to Malaya in 1890s. Father came to Penang 1/4/1901. Teaching post in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Married in Ipoh in around 1909. Returned to Anglicanism. Taught in King Edward School, Taiping. Inspector of Schools 1927. Went to school by car or rickshaw. Caste distinctions among Indian Christians. Lady Treacher School for kindergarten. Primary education in St George's School, Taiping. Sisters went to Taiping Convent.
PAUL, George Kanagaretnam 1713 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 13 Reason for good behaviour of Christian students. No organised moral education lessons in Victoria School. Sunday school in the Anglican church. Report books. Differences between Anglo-Chinese School in Ipoh and Victoria School. Working in Hume Industries, then an insurance agent. Lifestyle in Bangkok. Mother initiated switch in career. Interview for teaching. Teacher training. Observation of lesson by teacher trainer. Transfer to Bukit Panjang Primary School. Holy terror - Mr Felix Choo. Became discipline master and senior assistant.
PEET, George Lamb 541 Special Project 1 Father and grandfather Wesleyan Methodist Ministers. Went to Weslayan School. Left in 1919. Got reporter's job on county paper in Colchester, north-east Essex, England. Answered advertisement for Straits Times reporter. Very little available information about Singapore then. England's post-war economy depressed. Many took up jobs in British Empire posts abroad. Described snobbish, critical colonial society, he encountered in Singapore. European business, colonial service and Armed Services communities all lived separate existences.
PERUMBULAVIL, Vilasini (Mrs) 2437 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 3 *Recollection of Subash Chandra Bose, Dr. S. Lakshmi and the Indian National Army (INA). Incident where the INA helped her family. Food supply and rations. Death of people through illness. Visit by General Hideki Tojo to Singapore. Studied Japanese and sewing at Paya Lebar Methodist Girls' School (PLMGS). Studied Hindi at home. Party thrown by a teacher. Impression of a female student at PLMGS. Disappointment over the lack of information on Indian pioneers in Singapore. Recollection of events which culminated in the Japanese surrender. Sent a telegram to India after the war, and family was reunited in 1947.
RAJ, Florence Soundra Leela 1536 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 Description of estate; what happened when Japanese came. Torture incident father witnessed. Where Japanese stayed, why they occupied estate. Education received in estate. Father's narrow escape. Sent back to Singapore for education. Post-war: Why aunt had her transferred from Church of England Zenana Mission School (CEZMS) to Paya Lebar Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Difficulty in coping with English. Recollections of Paya Lebar MGS. Missionary teachers in CEZMS.
RAMESWARAM, Nagalingam 2271 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 Studied at Methodist Boys' School in Kuala Lumpur. Principal of the school Reverend P. L. Peach. Why he studied at Methodist Boys' School. American teachers in the school. Teaching was best job for Asians. Different pay and jobs for expatriates and Asians. Travelling to the school. Value of the pocket money. School activities that he took part in. School football players also played for Selangor state team. Malayan Cup matches he watched in the 1930s. Finals played at Ampang. Life during the Great Depression. Applied for a job at Survey Department in 1936. Training programme.
RATNAVELOO, Samya Velasamy 1387 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 Went to Kuala Lumpur at age of 8 from India. How he learned English and studied at Methodist Boys' School. In December 1941, witnessed advance of Japanese troops on bicycle. Obtained job as proof-reader in Malay Mail, re-started by Japanese. Asked to do reporting. Reported on functions organised by Malaysian Indian Congress and Indian Independence League (IIL). Covered address by Chandra Bose at Selangor Club.
SEET Leong Seng 464 Special Project 2 *Reasons for bitterness against Methodist Mission. Started working after leaving school. Working conditions and salary. Later joined British-American Tobacco Company as account clerk. Circumstances as dismissal. Worked as clerk in Pillai & Company between 1936 to 1937. Preparations for British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) evacuation from Singapore in 1941.
SEGERAM, Myna Ruth 586 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 1 Personal background. Spoke Sinhalese. At three, father died. At seven came to Singapore. Attended Raffles Girls' School (RGS). Family believed in girls' education. After Senior Cambridge Examination, unable to get medical scholarship. Became secretary. Attended Malaya Methodist College (theology). Worked during Japanese Occupation to support family. Few female workers. Became typist for municipality. Worked as secretary with Singapore Red Cross for five years. Married at 29.
SETHI, Baldev Raj 1408 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Students given testimonials instead of prizes. What they studied for Hygiene. His love for Mathematics. No science subject offered during his time. Emphasis on Latin and Literature. Teachers that impressed him the most. What inspired his love for books. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) had close relationship with Methodist Girls' School (MGS).
SETHI, Baldev Raj 1408 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 Came to Singapore in 1936 but left for India two years later. Returned to Singapore in 1947. Family background. Educated in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Informal school environment. School philosophy. Why he chose a Christian school even though he is a Hindu. First day in school. School population. Students' background. Relaxed school environment. Subjects he took. Religious service. Family's view towards religion.
SETHI, Baldev Raj 1408 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 Absence of punishment in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) helped him to adapt to school environment. Assembly included singing hymns and chapel service. Student counsellors given decision-making power. Students approached principal more often than teachers. School facilities. Teachers used to lunch with students. Class size. A lot of freedom in school. Values emphasised in school. Why there was no prize-giving.
SETHI, Baldev Raj 1408 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Students given testimonials instead of prizes. What they studied for Hygiene. His love for Mathematics. No science subject offered during his time. Emphasis on Latin and Literature. Teachers that impressed him the most. What inspired his love for books. Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) had close relationship with Methodist Girls' School (MGS).
SETHI, Baldev Raj 1408 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 He joined teaching profession in 1950. First taught in Rangoon Primary School. Why he wanted to teach. Parents' reactions towards his choice of profession. Half of the student population in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) were Christians. No corporal punishment. Fund-raising, extra-curricular activities (ECA) in ACS. Production of class magazine.
SETHI, Baldev Raj 1408 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 23 Different atmosphere between Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and Victoria School. Adopted an 'open door' policy to all his staff and students as a principal. His relationship with his son.
SINGH , Tara 437 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 1 Personal background. Came over to Singapore in 1905. Educated at Anglo-Chinese School. Started own business in 1921 with $50 capital. Went to Singapore Harbour Board to sell clothing, handkerchiefs. Opened shop in Tanglin Road in 1930. By 1936, won contracts from army for tailoring, shoe repairing. Repatriated money and went back to India before Japanese Occupation. How he re-started his business after the war.
SINHA, Hena (Mrs) 354 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 2 Description of Maymio. School and daily life there. Father later transferred to Tangoo. Attended middle school there. Description of Tangoo. Attended American Baptist Missionary School run by Americans; later high school at Methodist Girls' School in Rangoon. Comparing sanitary conditions in Rangoon, Meiktila, Maymio and Tangoo. Social activities for young girls. Origin of Ramakrishna Mission.
TAMBYAH, Leaena (Mrs) 1064 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 Early background and family history. Father, Dr D D Chelliah. Father's educational and career background; born in Penang; was teacher and headmaster of St George's Primary and Anglo-Chinese Schools in Malaysia. He went for further studies and obtained PhD; his thesis on Educational Policy in Straits Settlements. Trip to Singapore in 1940s. Became headmaster at St Andrew's School. A key figure in education service. Details about interviewee's brothers and sisters. Her father's contributions to social services.
TAN Ban Cheng ( Dr ) 392 Japanese Occupation of Singapore, 1942-1945 8 Heard rumours of Japanese losing war efforts elsewhere. Official news only announced victories. He was on vacation when Japanese surrendered. Heard rumours before newspaper announcement. His reaction to news. Celebration. Heard of revenge beatings and killings. Reaction of Japanese teachers. Did not know of any revenge on Japanese. Victory Parade. Improvement in food ration but prices still high. Went to study in Anglo- Chinese School when schools re-opened.
TAN Ban Cheng ( Dr ) 392 Japanese Occupation of Singapore, 1942-1945 9 Examinations used as a guide to determine educational level of students. Anglo-Chinese School. Poor facilities, also lacking textbooks. His impression of British Military Administration (BMA). Impact of Japanese Occupation on his life and on the population as a whole.
TAN Beng Neo 371 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 1 Family background. How parents came to Singapore. Why and how they escaped from home. Places where they stayed. Number of children in family. Schooling in Fairfield School. Recollection of her teachers. Transferred to Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Her self-taught sewing capabilities.
TAN Choo Quee ( Mrs ) 267 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 *Brought up by her uncle. Sent to a missionary boarding school at age of eight. After passing Standard 2, joined Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Why she chose teaching as her career. Spent holidays in uncle's home at Paya Lebar. Means of transport from Paya Lebar to town. Uncle owned a rickshaw. Her relationship with uncle and cousins. Location of her boarding school - Nind Home. How she came to Nind Home at MGS.
TAN Choo Quee ( Mrs ) 267 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 *Routine in boarding school. No uniform at that time. Different kinds of boarding conditions. Hawkers allowed to sell lunch in school. Student population. Organisation and facilities in Nind Home. Students' background. Relationships among different racial groups of students. Daily routine. School discipline. Brief accounts of the principal and teachers at Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Her secondary education.
TAN Choo Quee ( Mrs ) 267 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 *Student relationship and student population in Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Expansion to Evening Training School to accommodate more students besides using the building in Short Street. Later demolished Nind Home and principal's building to build MGS. Walked from Mt Sophia to school daily. Teachers in MGS. School building. Stayed in same dormitory since primary school. Signed up for teachers' training after obtaining Senior Cambridge. Uncle's family reaction to her taking up teaching. Her expectation on teaching.
TAN Choo Quee ( Mrs ) 267 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 *Chapel talks as a way to impart moral education. Her three years' teachers' training course. Her impression of teachers in training course. Evaluation of training course she attended. How she was taught to conduct a class. Passed Normal Training in 1933. Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) building in Neil Road.
TAN Choo Quee ( Mrs ) 267 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 *Continuation of description of school building. How she disciplined the students. How she taught various subjects in primary school. Teaching aids she adopted. Teachers had to prepare their own teaching aids. How she got the students' interest in lessons at Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS).
TAN Choo Quee ( Mrs ) 267 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 *System of one teacher per class teaching all subjects. Syllabus and textbooks selected by the principal. Comparison of syllabus, textbooks, teaching methods when she was a student and when she was a teacher. Examination as a means of student assessment. School terms and holidays. Extra-curricular activities (ECA) for students. Types of games organised for Sports Day. Criteria for enrolment in Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Discipline in school.
TAN Choo Quee ( Mrs ) 267 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 *How teachers were recruited. Ethnic background of teachers at Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Student population. No uniform. Students' background. Working conditions and a typical working day for teachers. Teachers' salaries. No fringe benefits given. Availability of scholarships and bursaries. Organisational structure and management of school. Principal's responsibility..
TAN Choo Quee ( Mrs ) 267 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 8 *How the principal recruited and selected teachers for school. European teachers employed for higher classes. A teacher's responsibility. How teachers dealt with problem students. Use of teachers' fund. No chance of promotion. Reduction of pay or replacement once teachers got married. Taught in Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) till war broke out in 1941. Her reaction to Japanese bombing. Took shelter in neighbour's. Description of air-raid shelter. How she knew about British surrender.
TAN Choo Quee ( Mrs ) 267 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 12 *Spent six months teaching at Pearl's Hill School. Returned to Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) in 1946. Overage students. Relationship between old and new teachers. Recruitment of new teachers. How the school tried to upgrade teaching methods. Teachers' salaries. How funds were obtained to run the school. No difference between pre-war and post-war teaching.
TAN Hung Toh 985 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 2: Chinese) 5 Effect of the Sino-Japanese war (1895) and the World Wars on Fuzhou. Fuzhou peoples' attitude towards Christians in the early twentieth century. Methodist Church's hospital in Fuzhou city. Effect of urbanisation on religion. Interviewee did not have a Christian name despite being a Christian. Main Christian denominations in Fuzhou.
TAN Hung Toh 985 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 2: Chinese) 6 More Anglican and Methodist converts than Catholics in Fuzhou. Churches sent Chinese students overseas for higher education. Contrast between Japan's and China's attitudes towards foreign-trained graduates. Examples of education-to-job "misfits". Why graduates rarely migrated to Nanyang.
TAN Hung Toh 985 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 2: Chinese) 13 Interviewee's views on Chinese schools in the 1920s. The Registration Ordinance. Information submitted for registration. Fuzhou community in Singapore in the early 1900s. Description of the difficult living conditions. Many people migrated to Sarawak and few came to Singapore. Role of the Fuzhou Methodist Church. Many migrants returned to China to get married. His marriage.
TAN Hung Toh 985 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 2: Chinese) 14 How interviewee got his first job in Singapore. A Fuzhou rubber trader friend whom he stayed with upon arrival. Rubber futures trading operations in the 1920s. His mother and only sister's ties with Singapore. Roles played by the Fuzhou Methodist Church. Clan associations and Foochow San Shan School in the early twentieth century. His reason for not seeking a job at San Shan School.
TAN Kok Kheng 232 Pioneers of Singapore 9 Other schools founded - Tao Nan School 1906, Ai Tong School 1912, Chong Hock Girls' School 1915, Nan Chiau Girls' High School 1946, Kong Hwa School. Also contributed to English school - Anglo-Chinese School. Promoted Chinese education even in Dutch East Indies. Chip Bee School built in stages; more buildings added after his retirement to China in 1950. Founded Amoy University. Dr Lim Boon Keng engaged as chancellor. Tan Kah Kee's other services to public.
TAY Poh Luan (Mrs) 1364 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 1 Personal and family background. Influence of grandmother. Attended Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). School curriculum. Primary school teachers. Joy of school versus duties at home. Childhood toys. Sports. Pocket money. Extra-curricular classes eg second language - Latin. Secondary school curriculum. Transition from Fairfield to Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Secondary school teachers, especially Mrs Harper as mentor. Involvement in Girls' Brigade.
TAY Poh Luan (Mrs) 1364 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Family income during Japanese Occupation - selling cloth, giving private tuition. Reasons for making teaching a career. Teacher training at Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Duties, curriculum, size of classes, other staff members. Re-opening and extension of Fairfield. In 1949, awarded social work scholarship in Swansea. Terms of scholarship, curriculum, fieldwork, allowances, vacation work. Second scholarship awarded.
TAY Poh Luan (Mrs) 1364 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 Studying in Liverpool. Curriculum. Fieldwork in East London, Edinburgh, Liverpool. Friends made in United Kingdom. Reasons for returning to teach at Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Duties. Old girls. Curriculum, especially second language. Teaching methods. Duration of school hours. Preference to teach Primary 3 and 4. Students' assessment, background. Home visits. Student welfare.
TAY Poh Luan (Mrs) 1364 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 Teaching duties after return from United Kingdom. Structure and size of Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Development of Fairfield. Became principal of afternoon school. New duties. Staff turnover. Relations with school inspector and staff of morning school. Fund raising. Management committee. Relations with students, parents. Discipline. Coping with slow learners.
TAY Poh Luan (Mrs) 1364 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 Helping students. Truancy problems. Merger of morning and afternoon schools at Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS). Joined Inspectorate. Salary. Probation. Supervisors. Working hours. Duties. Full inspection of schools. Teachers' response. Size of inspection teams. Methods. Geographical division of responsibility. Involved in pilot programme on reading - its rationale, schools' participation. Inspecting versus teaching. Reasons for joining Inspectorate.
TAY Poh Luan (Mrs) 1364 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 Conditions of work at Fairfield Methodist Girls' School (MGS) versus Inspectorate. Inspection process; effectiveness. How Government policy affected inspection eg streaming at Primary 3 and language policy. Schools' response. Personal reaction. Promotional prospects. Size of primary section of Inspectorate. Relationship with colleagues. Juggling career and Girls' Brigade. Liaison between Ministry of Education (MOE) and Girls' Brigade. Relationship with other youth organisations.
TAY Teck Eng (Dr) 2105 Development of Medical Services in Singapore 1 Born in l 1914, China. Family Background. Reasons for coming to Singapore. Mode of transportation to school in the 1930s. Living conditions in Singapore. Recollections of his classmates at Serangoon English School. Schooling days at Anglo Chinese School. How an unknown benefactor paid for his medical school fees. Later, obtained the Tan Jiak Kim Scholarship. Ragging in medical school. Relationship between medical and dental students. Syllabus taught in Dental School.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 Recollections of first year in school. Impressions of class teacher, classmates, discipline and other teachers. Why parents chose Methodist Girls' School. Impact of missionaries on father. School's location, buildings, classrooms, atmosphere, toilets and furniture. Things she brought to school. Subjects taught, religious instruction received. Transportation to school. Uniform and hairstyle. What teachers wore. Events leading to war. What happened to family during Japanese Occupation.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Elaboration on what happened to family during Japanese Occupation. Mother's resourcefulness. What happened to father. How they found new accommodation. How mother helped prisoners of war (POWs). Daily life. Resumption of school at Church of England Zenana Mission School (CEZMS); education received.What happened to missionaries. Amalgamation of CEZMS with Methodist GirlsSchool. Family's move to Endau. Life in Endau, education received, pastimes, family pets. Japanese surrender.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 Role F H Sullivan and Anna Zinn played in father's life. Impressions of missionaries she knew; relationship with them, their work. What led to the founding of Methodist Girls' School. Miss Sophia Blackmore's role. School's early days, how it grew. Elaboration on missionaries. Elaboration on her father. Why Methodist Church grew. School motto. School's role in moulding her as a person. Elaboration on teachers.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 Religious tone of Methodist Girls' School. Her favourite bible story. Why family became Christians. Conversion among classmates; school's attitude towards those wishing to convert. Teachers that impressed her; the Wong sisters. How school helped poorer students. Dwindling number of missionaries. Church's role after People's Action Party (PAP) took over. Who is currently responsible for school's Christian education. Elaboration on classmates, her relationship with them. Activities and games they enjoyed.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 Methodist Girls' School in immediate post-war years. School uniform, facilities, canteen food, pocket money. Medical check-ups. School rules, curriculum, favourite subjects, teaching methods. Her reading habit. Art lessons. Teachers she visited, relationship between teacher and students. Syllabus for Geography and History. Empire Day, English songs they learnt. When Girl Guides started. Why she continued with guiding after Company closed to makeway for Girls Brigade.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 7 Elaboration on hikes. Girl Guides' camps: venue, activities. Impact of guiding on her life. Time devoted to guiding, her parents' attitude towards this and her studies. Her strong subject, Mathematics. Tests and examinations,why no pressure to perform. Extra-curricular activities offered, House practices, physical education attire. Games day, type of races, prizes. Sports she was active in at Methodist Girls' School (MGS).
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 8 Elaboration on sports she took part in. What motivated students to participate fully in extra-curricular activities. Nature of inter-school sporting competition. Academic competition among schools. Relationship with Anglo-Chinese School. Why she was not awkward with boys. Public" perception of Methodist Girls"School. Views on full school system. Why no prefects until 1950s. Monitress system. Senior Cambridge year, how she coped.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 9 Reasons for poor performance in Chinese. Senior Cambridge class' background. Tuition, important subjects, where they went for Science classes. Classmates' aspirations, how her ambition was thwarted by her father. Brothers' educational attainment. Preparation for Senior Cambridge. Impressions of principal of Methodist Girls' School (MGS), Mrs Handy. Selection process for principals and teachers. Relationship between school and church. Pre-university education at St Andrew's School, curriculum, teachers, class composition, relationship with boys.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 11 Elaboration on teaching style. Turning point in her teaching career. How she disciplined class. Students' and teachers' attitudes towards school then. Elaboration on how she disciplined class. Extra-curicular activities (ECA) responsibilities. How she got Methodist Girls' School posting, teaching load, cooperation from former teachers. Teaching staff. Salary scale. Elaboration on pre-university education, why entrance examination was introduced. How undergraduates financed themselves.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 13 Aspirations for her children, her limited role in charting their educational paths. Daily routine in 1950s. Reasons for Methodist Girls' School good Mathematics performance. Why afternoon school was introduced in 1950s, its adverse effects on students, when it was scraped. Impressions of students. School's ability to absorb increased demand for education in 1960s. Recruitment of teachers, qualities they looked for. Educational qualifications of teachers then. Syllabus and scheme of work.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 14 Supervision of teachers. How senior teachers took leadership naturally. Staff atmosphere at Methodist Girls' School (MGS) then and now. Sources of funds. Fund-raising activities: funfairs, jumble sales, selling of recipe books. Other sources of funds. School Management Committee, its role in the school. School inspectors' visits. School's external appraisals, staff's response. Personal views on usefulness of appraisals.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 16 How mission schools strengthened religious base in spite of restrictions. Daily devotions, effects on students. Curriculum changes implemented by Government; her attitude towards changing Government policies. Streaming and prevalence of tuition among students. Why she was against extra-curricular activities (ECA) point system. ECA participation today. Sports Methodist Girls' School (MGS) is strong in. MGS's examination performance. Why she was concerned about school's ranking.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 17 Elaboration on ranking of schools. How she became principal; initial feelings, support from colleagues. On-the-job training, lessons learnt. Relationship with colleagues after becoming principal. How she developed open relationship with parents. How she was hard on herself; her sources of support. Methodist Girls' School Alumni Association's contributions. Parent Link - parents' supportive role in school. Non-teaching staff, their support.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 18 What led to decision to become independent. Why primary school operated at Balestier. Why Blackmore Drive was chosen as new school site. New school's facilities. Costs, how building was funded. Her vision for Methodist Girls' school (MGS). Curriculum changes. Staff changes, recruitment of new staff, employment contract. Teaching load. Teacher-student ratio. Pastoral programme. School fees. Views on independent schools.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 19 Areas she had greater autonomy over. Financial problems faced. No changes in admission criteria. No moderation of examination marks, what happened togirls who failed. Comments on Methodist Girls' School (MGS) being an independentschool. Students' background. Measures to improve teaching. Assessment of present teachers. Views on Singapore Teachers' Union (STU). Reflections on her life's guiding principles, faith in God and fulfilment she got from her career.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 8 Elaboration on sports she took part in. What motivated students to participate fully in extra-curricular activities. Nature of inter-school sporting competition. Academic competition among schools. Relationship with Anglo-Chinese School. Why she was not awkward with boys. Public" perception of Methodist Girls"School. Views on full school system. Why no prefects until 1950s. Monitress system. Senior Cambridge year, how she coped.
THAM, Anna (Mrs) 1564 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 10 How she found University Entrance Examination; lack of competition to enter university. Attitude towards education. When she entered university; her views on ragging, why she was singled out. Recollections of university days. Her pre-course teaching experience at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Practice teaching at St Margaret's School; what her supervisor was like. What training course comprised of, class supervision. Her effectiveness as a Mathematics teacher, her teaching style.
THAMBIRAJU Paramasivam 1171 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 1 Personal background. Father a building inspector in Johore. Attended school at Serangoon English School and Anglo-Chinese School. Went to Segamat English School for Standard 2 and 3. Father sometimes stationed in Singapore and Johore as building inspector. As such transferred to various school. Since 1929 onwards, began to settle in Singapore at age of 13.
THANABALAM, Narayaswamy 1524 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 Born in, and grew up in Tanjong Pagar. Attended Tamil school, Gan Eng Seng School and Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Impressions of school life. Finished 7th Standard at ACS in 1926. Applied for dresser's job at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) in May 1927. Pay was $50 per month.
THANAPATHY Naidu 1184 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 1 Came from poor family background. Father was technician and mother housewife. Eldest in family. Came from Telegu-speaking home and Telegu by origin. Attended Methodist Boy's School. Completed Junior Cambridge in 1922. An orthodox family rooted in culture, religion and values. Maintained good relationship with parents and teachers.
THEVATHASAN, Anna Gnanasundram (Mrs) 345 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 5 Her arranged marriage. Both families known to each other. Father-in-law got teaching post at Anglo-Chinese School. Her interest in learning to play the piano after gettihg her school certificate. Met her prospective mother-in-law when she asked to be shown around Uduvil Girls' School. Prospective mother-in-law told interviewee's uncle about her son's requirements for wife.
THEVATHASAN, Anna Gnanasundram (Mrs) 345 Women Through The Years: Economic & Family Lives 23 Why husband liked private medical practice. Offered his services as part-time lecturer to Medical College. Increase in incidence of tuberculosis. Husband's voluntary work with Red Cross, Singapore Anti-Tuberculosis Association (SATA), Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) and Rotary Club. How he made friends with his patients.
THEVATHASAN, Victor Mathuraretnam Samuel (Dr.) 2171 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 Samuel Muthalithamby Thevathasan, his father, was a teacher at Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Mother completed Junior Cambridge Certificate. Interviewee studied in ACS. Entered King Edward VII College of Medicine in 1939. Impression of teachers and chapel services at ACS. Played hockey and swam for ACS. Students' attitudes towards the teachers. Why he studied medicine. Subjects taken. Medical students had to join the Medical Auxiliary Services during the war. Students shot as they were burying Yoong Tatt Sin. Drove his car right into a Japanese convoy. First impression of Japanese soldiers.
THILLAMPALAM, Nallathamby 1517 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 Educated at Methodist Boys' School, Kuala Lumpur. During Japanese Occupation, answered advertisement for pilot's job in Singapore. Upon arrival, found out he had to work at workshop at Seletar air base. Applied for hospital dresser's job at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) post-war. Training received as probationary hospital dresser.
TOH Man Keong 1 Special Project 1 Family background. Occupations of his family in Penang. His childhood. Primary and secondary education in Anglo-Chinese School, Penang. First visit to Singapore in 1938. Life on board ship. Arrival, reception and activities in Singapore. Motivation and circumstances leading to migration to Singapore.
VALUPPILLAI s/o Pandarapillai 339 Communities of Singapore (Part 2) 2 How education of Ceylonese benefited both Ceylon and British administration. Why he decided to come to Singapore; his education and teachers in Anglo-Chinese School. Changed his mind about pursuing law. His job as case clerk in legal firm and why he left. Wrote articles for local publications. Started work in Malayan Establishment Office; nature of his work.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 11 Annual games competition. Methodist Girls' School (MGS) as sister school of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). ACS under full control of the church educational secretary. Interaction with the MGS girls. Reason why he became a teacher. Starting salary was high. Differences between Diploma and Certificate courses in Institute of Education (IE). Went back to teach in ACS and the impact on him. Attempts to change Maths syllabus. Became Head of Maths Department. Difficulties he faced.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 15 Fund-raising for school buildings. Structure of the Methodist church in Singapore. His attempt to revive the Educational Secretary of the church. Changes in the structure of Board of Directors throughout the years and their influence in mission schools. Helped his teacher during election campaign. His view on the stand of the English- and Chinese-educated. How he helped his teacher to campaign in Serangoon.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 2 How his parents educated them. Sisters' education. Mission schools were not popular in the 1950s. Boys were not allowed to do housework. Local names for St Joseph's Institution (SJI), St Andrew's School and Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). School uniforms and textbooks were passed down from brothers. Learnt to face criticism and humiliation during Japanese Occupation. First impression of ACS. Description of the school building.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 3 Things taught in school. Walked to school. Furniture in school. Stationery he used. Daily cleanliness check in the morning. Some of the things he enjoyed learning. Play area in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Played badminton in Outram School. Canteen and the food sold. Pocket money and how he made use of the money to buy comic books. Remembered school songs and slogan.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 4 Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) slogan. Thought that ACS school song was the most touching anthem. Beliefs of ACS and his belief in education. Interesting field trips in ACS. Brought students to rural area in Japan to experience different lifestyles. Bred fighting fish as one of the school projects.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 5 School projects they did. Well-versed in all subjects. Family religion. Religious influence in school. Enjoyed chapel services. Religion was used as discipline in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Strict discipline of ACS. Discipline was enforced at home. Disliked corporal punishment. Offences that led to corporal punishment. Other methods of punishment in ACS. Trained to be insensitive to criticism. An incident when he was told to eat chalk.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 6 How he felt being punished in class. Memory of the discipline master in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Nicknames of the teachers in ACS. Academic prizes were given to achievers. Founder's Day in ACS and the ceremony. Teachers' influences on him. Criteria that he thought good teachers would possess.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 9 Weekly debating class that had great impact on Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) students. Components of good debate. Activities of the debating class. How they went about doing it. Did not take Primary School Leaving Examination in ACS as it was a full school. In-school examination in ACS.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 10 Comments on multiple-choice questions. Separation of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) into primary and secondary sections. Unique feature of ACS. Emotional attachment to the school. Few students transferred out of the school. Competition between ACS and Raffles Institution (RI). Characteristics of ACS. ACS achievements in many fields. Competition with Chinese schools.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 11 Annual games competition. Methodist Girls' School (MGS) as sister school of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). ACS under full control of the church educational secretary. Interaction with the MGS girls. Reason why he became a teacher. Starting salary was high. Differences between Diploma and Certificate courses in Institute of Education (IE). Went back to teach in ACS and the impact on him. Attempts to change Maths syllabus. Became Head of Maths Department. Difficulties he faced.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 14 Students' choice to stay in Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC) after the separation. Brought ACJC to new heights after he took over. Was able to influence students in two years. ACJC provided a different education for students. Surroundings of ACJC in the early years. Choice of site to build ACJC. Fund-raising to build the school. Increasing facilities. Description of the surroundings and development over the years. Description of the school buildings and facilities. Sources of funds and government support.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 16 Dialects were used during the campaign. How he felt as an English-educated. Viewed Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) or Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC) as two different schools. Keen competition with Raffles Institution (RI). Students' loyalty to school was deteriorating. Mission and spirit of ACS. Pioneer teachers in ACJC. ACS and ACJC shared one Board. Difficulties faced by ACJC in the initial years. Recruiting best students in Teacher's Training College (TTC).
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 17 Qualities of a good teacher. Became a Christian in the 1980s. Board of Governors in Anglo-Chinese School (ACS). Old boys' representation on the Board since 1960s. Old boys and the governors had different views most of the time and examples given. Financial support from the church. Church was reluctant to receive donations from the Turf Club. Interference of the Board in school administration. His attempts to stop Board interference.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 18 Further elaboration on Board interference in school administration. His attempts and intention to revive the post of Educational Secretary of the Church. The different responsibilities of the Educational Secretary in the early years and now. Place of religion in mission schools which try to highlight the positive value of Christian faith in school. Percentage of other ethnic groups in Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC). Church should be encouraged to step up influence in school. Religion Week in ACJC.
WAN Fook Weng 1949 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 1: English) 19 Religious activities in Anglo-Chinese Junior College (ACJC). Religious Knowledge was used as a soft subject to enter Junior College. Objectives of the Old Boys' Association (OBA) of ACJC changed throughout the years. Reason why he was not active in OBA. All affiliates of Anglo-Chinese School (ACS) shared one OBA. Carried with him the fighting spirit into ACJC. How he helped students to excel. Qualities of a good school.
WEE Yew Lum 2382 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 Interviewee's father came to Singapore from Amoy. Constructed and sold houses at Joo Chiat. Used his own cement bricks. Father had few demands in life. Attended Geylang Chinese Methodist Church. Mother was a housewife. Elder brother kidnapped and never heard of again. Studied in a Chinese school, followed by Geylang English School. Entry into Raffles Institution (RI). Joined the Cadets at RI. Impression of the teachers and students. Studied at Raja's Commercial School later and worked in American Foreign Insurance Association. Joined Postal Services Department in 1941. Japanese bombing of Singapore.
WONG Hou Ren 688 Development of Education in Singapore (Part 2: Chinese) 1 Interviewee's family background. His father, who was a revolutionary, died when he was five years old. Interviewee's education. Worked as a translator for Methodist Church after graduating from university. Chaotic situation in China.
YOONG Siew Wah 2603 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 1 *Family background. Recollection of his childhood. Impressions of his teachers at Methodist Boys' School at Kuala Lumpur. School activities. Attended Kong Siew Free School in the afternoons. Reason why his parents sent him to two schools. Ambition as a student. Vague memory of the bombing of Kuala Lumpur and Australian soldiers in 1941. First impression of a Japanese soldier. Water torture employed by the Japanese. Life for his family during the Japanese Occupation. Uncle managed Bentong Distillery. Responsibilities as a supervisor at Bentong Distillery. Demand for colonial currency after the Japanese surrendered.
YOONG Siew Wah 2603 The Civil Service - A Retrospection 3 *Travelled in a lorry between Bentong and Kuala Lumpur during the Japanese Occupation. Rejoined Methodist Boys' School in September 1945. Subjects taken and chapel services. No ambitions during his Senior Cambridge year in 1947. Worked in Malaya Command as a clerk in 1948. Transferred to Base Ordnance Depot (BOD) in Singapore later that year. First impressions of Singapore. Colleagues at BOD. Reasons for joining the Singapore Police Force (SPF) in 1950. Interviews to join the SPF. What the SPF was like in the 1950s. Training programme and police life for Cadet Sub-Inspectors.

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